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Table 3 Baseline characteristics of the participants

From: Feasibility and effectiveness of a targeted diabetes prevention program for 18 to 60-year-old South Asian migrants: design and methods of the DH!AAN study

  Participants Intervention group Control group Significance*
n = 536 n = 283 n = 253  
Median age in years 45 (37–52) 45 (37–52) 44 (37–51) 0.49
Men (%) 265 (49.4) 136 (48.1) 129 (51.0) 0.50
Education (%)     0.36
Elementarya 61 (11.7) 27 (9.9) 34 (13.7)  
Intermediateb 364 (70.0) 192 (70.6) 172 (69.4)  
University or equivalentc 95 (18.3) 53 (19.5) 42 (16.9)  
Family with DM (%)d 398 (76.2) 214 (77.8) 184 (74.5) 0.37
Median BMI in kg/m2 26.9 (24.5–29.6) 26.9 (24.7–29.5) 27.0 (24.4–29.8) 0.90
Mean waist circumference in cm     
Men 95.0 (10.9) 95.0 (10.5) 95.0 (11.4) 0.99
Women 90.7 (10.5) 90.4 (10.6) 91.1 (10.4) 0.60
Median SBP in mm Hg 125.5 (117.0–37.3) 125.7 (117.5–7.5) 125.0 (116.5–36.5) 0.53
Mean DBP in mm Hg 83.0 (10.0) 83.3 (9.9) 82.7 (10.2) 0.51
Hypertension (%)e| 200 (38.6) 105 (38.3) 95 (38.9) 0.89
Plasma glucose in mmol/l     
Mean FPG 5.3 (0.5) 5.3 (0.6) 5.3 (0.5) 0.77
Median 2-h postload glucose 5.8 (4.8–6.9) 5.9 (5.0–7.0) 5.5 (4.8–6.9) 0.12
Median HbA1c in % 5.7 (5.4–5.9) 5.7 (5.4–5.9) 5.6 (5.4–5.9) 0.31
Median HOMA-IR 3.1 (2.2–4.1) 3.1 (2.2–4.2) 3.0 (2.3–4.1) 0.91
Median insulin in pmol/l 12.9 (9.6–17.3) 13.4 (9.6–17.5) 12.8 (9.6–17.1) 0.86
Mean LDL in mmol/l 3.2 (0.9) 3.2 (0.8) 3.2 (0.9) 0.83
Median HDL in mmol/l) 1.2 (1.0–1.4) 1.2 (1.1–1.4) 1.2 (1.0–1.4) 0.27
  1. Data are given as n (percentages, calculated excluding missings), means (SD) if normally distributed or medians (IQRs) if not normally distributed.
  2. *p is given as calculated with the chi-squared test (binary data), independent t-test (continuous data), or Mann–Whitney U test (ordinal/nominal data and not normally distributed data).
  3. aPrimary education or less.
  4. bLow vocational training, lower secondary education, intermediate vocational training and higher secondary education.
  5. cHigher vocational training and university.
  6. dFirst and second grade.
  7. eSystolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mm Hg or if hypertension medication.
  8. BMI, body mass index; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus; FPG, fasting plasma glucose; Hb A1c , glycated hemoglobin; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment of estimated insulin resistance; IQR, interquartile range; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; SBP, systolic blood pressure; SD, standard deviation.