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Table 2 Barriers to mental health care - frequencies of themes sorted by the number of countries from highest to lowest

From: Mental health care for irregular migrants in Europe: Barriers and how they are overcome

Themes 14 countries 25 experts Countries
IMs’ complex needs beyond the capacity of mental health services (h) 11 countries 16 experts Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, The Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain, United Kingdom
Lack of trust in health and social care institutions (g) 11 countries 16 experts Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Ireland, The Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Sweden, United Kingdom
General shortage of resources in services providing mental health care (f) 10 countries 12 experts Austria, Belgium, France, Ireland, Italy, The Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain, United Kingdom
Lack of specialised resources for treating migrants with mental health problems (e) 9 countries 12 experts Austria, Belgium, France, Hungary, Ireland, The Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain
Care providers’ lack of awareness of the legal entitlement of IMs to mental health care (d) 8 countries 12 experts Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Ireland, The Netherlands, Portugal, United Kingdom
No legal entitlement to mental health care – emergency care only (a) 7 countries 12 experts Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Poland, Sweden
Administrative barriers obtaining mental health care even if legal entitlement exists (b) 7 countries 11 experts Belgium, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, United Kingdom
IMs’ lack of awareness of entitlement to mental health care (c) 6 countries 8 experts Belgium, Ireland, The Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, United Kingdom