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Table 4 Educational inequalities in use of health care comparing low educational to high educational level

From: Socioeconomic inequalities in mortality from conditions amenable to medical interventions: do they reflect inequalities in access or quality of health care?

Country Visit GP* Visit specialist* Visit any doctor* Hospital admission* Use of any medication* Use of prescribed medicine* Cholesterol screening in last 5 years Blood pressure screening in the last 5 years Cervical cancer screening
  OR (CI95)** OR (CI95)** OR (CI95)** OR (CI95)** OR (CI95)** OR (CI95)** OR (CI95)** OR (CI95)** OR (CI95)**
Western Europe          
Belgium 1.14 (1.09–1.20) 0.73 (0.69–0.77) 0.95 (0.91–1.00) 0.99 (0.90–1.11) 0.82 (0.78–0.86) 1.15 (1.07–1.24) 0.69 (0.66–0.72) 0.73 (0.66–0.79) 0.55 (0.50–0.61)
Switzerland NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
Nordic countries          
Sweden NA NA 0.83 (0.73–0.94) NA NA NA NA NA NA
Finland NA NA 0.78 (0.73–0.84) NA NA NA 0.60 (0.53–0.68) 0.71 (0.56–0.91) NA
Denmark 0.88 (0.80–0.97) 0.64 (0.54–0.76) 0.84 (0.76–0.92) 1.06 (0.88–1.28) 0.92 (0.84–1.02) 1.08 (0.93–1.24) 0.85 (0.77–0.94) 0.88 (0.80–0.98) NA
Norway 1.00 (0.82–1.24) 0.70 (0.56–0.87) 0.96 (0.78–1.19) 1.13 (0.89–1.44) 1.20 (0.97–1.47) 1.07 (0.86–1.32) NA NA NA
Southern Europe          
Italy 1.03 (0.98–1.08) 0.72 (0.69–0.76) 0.87 (0.83–0.90) 1.05 (0.98–1.13) 0.83 (0.81–0.87) 1.21 (1.13–1.31) 0.84 (0.82–0.87) 0.82 (0.79–0.85) 0.70 (0.68–0.73)
Spain NA NA 0.91 (0.82–1.01) 0.88 (0.75–1.02) 0.90 (0.83–0.98) NA NA NA NA
Baltic region          
Estonia 0.87 (0.74–1.02) 0.74 (0.63–0.86) 0.73 (0.62–0.87) 1.10 (0.92–1.33) 1.09 (0.92–1.27) NA 0.83 (0.70–0.98) 0.72 (0.50–1.02) 0.55 (0.44–0.69)
Lithuania NA NA 0.74 (0.67–0.82) NA NA NA 0.97 (0.88–1.07) 0.69 (0.61–0.78) NA
Central and Eastern Europe         
Slovenia NA NA 0.79 (0.56–1.12) NA NA NA NA NA NA
Poland NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
Czech Republic NA NA NA 0.97 (0.78–1.12) 0.66 (0.54–0.81) 1.58 (1.23–2.03) 0.79 (0.70–0.90) 1.07 (0.94–1.22) 0.62 (0.48–0.81)
Hungary 0.80 (0.71–0.89) 0.55 (0.49–0.61) 0.65 (0.58–0.75) 1.00 (0.89–1.13) 0.65 (0.59–0.73)   0.59 (0.55–0.65) 0.67 (0.55–0.86) NA
  1. *Adjusted for age, sex and self rated health, **(OR CI95)=odd ratio with 95% confidence interval’ In the calculation of the odds ratio the highest educational level is the reference group.
  2. For Switzerland and Poland no survey data were available.