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Table 3 Univariate and multivariate models predicting the odds ratios of developing diabetes mellitus among the participants of the study area in Cyprus

From: A preliminary assessment of low level arsenic exposure and diabetes mellitus in Cyprus

Univariate Models OR (95% CI) p-value
Sex – Males vs. Females 1.876 (0.75, 4.66) 0.18
Age (year) 1.047 (1.02, 1.08) 0.001
Smoke – Yes vs. No 2.563 (1.05, 6.25) 0.04
Log arsenic exposure (mg) 1.777 (1.08, 2.92) 0.02
Education   
 High School vs. Elementary 0.672 (0.25, 1.81) 0.43
 Undergraduate vs. Elementary 0.431 (0.11, 1.69) 0.23
 Postgraduate vs. Elementary 0.481 (0.06, 4.07) 0.50
Tertiles of arsenic exposure   
 Second vs. First 4.781 (1.01, 22.69) 0.05
 Third vs. First 5.368 (1.15, 25.13) 0.03
Quintiles of arsenic exposure   
 Second vs. First 0.968 (0.13, 7.09) 0.97
 Third vs. First 2.632 (0.49, 14.11) 0.26
 Fourth vs. First 1.500 (0.24, 9.30) 0.66
 Fifth vs. First 5.000 (1.03, 24.17) 0.04
Multivariate Models OR (95% CI) p-value
Model 1   
 Age (year) 1.036 (1.00, 1.07) 0.04
 Males vs. Females 1.280 (0.43, 3.84) 0.66
 Smoke – Yes vs. No 2.034 (0.69, 5.99) 0.20
 Log arsenic exposure (mg) 1.287 (0.74, 2.25) 0.38
Model 2   
 Age (year) 1.041 (1.00, 1.08) 0.02
 Males vs. Females 1.268 (0.42, 3.81) 0.67
 Smoke – Yes vs. No 2.000 (0.68, 5.91) 0.21
 Tertiles of arsenic exposure   
  Second vs. First 3.493 (0.70, 17.33) 0.13
  Third vs. First 2.287 (0.41, 12.66) 0.34
Model 3   
 Age (year) 1.038 (1.00, 1.08) 0.03
 Males vs. Females 1.425 (0.47, 4.29) 0.53
 Smoke – Yes vs. No 1.867 (0.63, 5.51) 0.26
 Quintiles of arsenic exposure   
  Second vs. First 0.717 (0.09, 5.56) 0.75
  Third vs. First 1.791 (0.31, 10.26) 0.51
  Fourth vs. First 0.774 (0.109, 5.516) 0.80
 Fifth vs. First 1.857 (0.298, 11.592) 0.51