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Table 2 Ratios of geometric means for the cumulative lifetime arsenic exposure index values comparing participants with type II diabetes versus participants without

From: A preliminary assessment of low level arsenic exposure and diabetes mellitus in Cyprus

  Unadjusted Ratio of Geometric Means (95% CI) Adjusted* Ratio of Geometric Means (95% CI)
Overall 1.93 (1.11, 3.39) 1.22 (0.74, 1.99)
Sex  
 Female 1.99 (0.77, 5.16) 1.57 (0.70, 3.46)
 Male 1.88 (0.96, 3.67) 1.11 (0.59, 2.08)
Age group  
 18-40 years 1.65 (0.28, 9.58) 1.48 (0.25, 8.58)
 40-60 years 1.20 (0.51, 2.80) 1.19 (0.50, 2.77)
 >60 years 1.13 (0.70, 1.79) 1.26 (0.79, 2.01)
Education  
 Elementary 1.16 (0.53, 2.53) 1.35 (0.73, 2.48)
 High School 1.84 (0.83, 4.14) 1.08 (0.47, 2.51)
 Undergraduate 2.36 (0.55, 10.28) 1.51 (0.37, 6.11)
 Post-graduate 4.81 (0.25, 93.69) 1.95 (0.11, 34.81)
Smoking status   
 No 1.63 (0.73, 3.63) 1.25 (0.62, 2.53)
 Yes 2.34 (1.05, 5.21) 1.20 (0.58, 2.44)
Using water to cook  
 No 2.27 (0.25, 20.70) 0.73 (0.08, 6.36)
 Yes 2.05 (1.14, 3.71) 1.36 (0.80, 2.29)
Consumption of Fish  
 No 2.14 (0.62, 7.32) 1.43 (0.45, 4.62)
 1-3/week 1.88 (1.01, 3.53) 1.19 (0.69, 2.05)
 More than  1-3/week NA**
  1. *Adjusted for age, sex, education and smoking status.
  2. ** Inadequate available subgroup sample size to run the model.