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Table 3 Bivariate probit model of awareness and acceptability of HPV vaccine (N = 742)

From: Awareness and acceptability of human papillomavirus vaccine: an application of the instrumental variables bivariate probit model

  Equation:
Aware of HPV vaccine
Equation:
Would have daughter get HPV vaccine
  Coefficient (95% C.I.) Coefficient (95% C.I.)
Aware of HPV vaccine -   1.384** (0.725, 2.044)
Age group     
   18-34 Reference   Reference  
   35-39 0.056 (–0.468, 0.579) –0.164 (–0.568, 0.239)
   40-44 0.123 (–0.455, 0.701) –0.211 (–0.582, 0.161)
   45+ –0.255 (–0.778, 0.267) 0.011 (–0.316, 0.337)
Race/ethnicity     
   Non-Hispanic White Reference   Reference  
   Non-Hispanic Black –0.410 (–0.935, 0.114) –0.258 (–0.738, 0.222)
   Hispanic –0.401 (–1.097, 0.295) 0.177 (–0.391, 0.746)
   Other non-Hispanic –0.680† (–1.416, 0.057) –0.224 (–0.894, 0.445)
Household income     
   $75,000 or more Reference   Reference  
   $50,000 - < $75,000 0.424 (–0.190, 1.037) –0.300 (–0.718, 0.118)
   $20,000 - < $50,000 –0.074 (–0.680, 0.533) 0.130 (–0.307, 0.567)
   Less than $20,000 0.142 (–0.521, 0.806) 0.177 (–0.438, 0.792)
Education     
   College graduate Reference   Reference  
   Some college 0.202 (–0.284, 0.688) 0.025 (–0.338, 0.388)
   High school graduate –0.306 (–0.881, 0.269) 0.147 (–0.249, 0.543)
   Less than high school –0.801* (–1.591, –0.012) 0.542† (–0.031, 1.115)
Having any health insurance 0.372 (–0.110, 0.854) –0.232 (–0.698, 0.234)
Having a regular health care provider 0.010 (–0.394, 0.414) 0.163 (–0.196, 0.523)
Past medical history of cancer 0.594 (–0.528, 1.716) 0.066 (–0.412, 0.544)
Family history of cancer 0.189 (–0.213, 0.591) 0.073 (–0.220, 0.366)
Self-rated health status     
   Excellent Reference   Reference  
   Very good 0.324 (–0.412, 1.059) 0.154 (–0.259, 0.567)
   Good 0.006 (–0.738, 0.751) 0.436* (0.005, 0.868)
   Fair 0.124 (–0.726, 0.973) 0.223 (–0.279, 0.726)
   Poor 0.675 (–0.402, 1.753) –0.069 (–1.048, 0.909)
Instrumental variables     
   Heard about test for lung cancer 0.697* (0.174, 1.219) -  
   Heard about clinical trials 0.362† (–0.015, 0.740) -  
Constant 0.506 (–0.531, 1.542) –1.005* (–1.881, –0.129)
Correlation (ρ)    –0.689* (–0.927, –0.060)
  1. Notes: †p < 0.10, *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01. A set of dummy variables for survey regional division in the 2007 HINTS was included in the estimation but their coefficients are not presented here.