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Table 3 Interactionsof trends by education level and income level on four smoking related outcomes

From: Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in smoking prevalence, consumption, initiation, and cessation between 2001 and 2008 in the Netherlands. Findings from a national population survey

  Men Women
Smoking prevalence   
Trends * education level 0.99 (0.91 to 1.07) 0.86 (0.79 to 0.94)
Trends * income level 0.95 (0.87 to 1.04) 0.94 (0.86 to 1.04)
Smoking consumption   
Trends * education level −0.08 (−0.17 to −0.01) −0.04 (−0.13 to 0.04)
Trends * income level 0.05 (−0.04 to 0.14) −0.02 (−0.11 to 0.07)
Initiation ratio   
Trends * education level 0.94 (0.87 to 1.02) 0.86 (0.79 to 0.92)
Trends * income level 0.92 (0.84 to 1.01) 0.97 (0.90 to 1.06)
Quit ratio   
Trends * education level 0.99 (0.90 to 1.10) 1.14 (1.02 to 1.28)
Trends * income level 1.05 (0.94 to 1.18) 1.11 (0.99 to 1.25)
  1. † Odds Ratios and 95% confidence intervals are given for smoking prevalence, initiation ratio, and quit ratio, Bètas and 95% confidence intervals are given for smoking consumption. All regression coefficients were adjusted for age group. Regression coefficients in italics were non-significant.
  2. * Education level and income level were entered as independent variables in separate analyses.