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Table 1 Demographic characteristics and smoking frequency at baseline/follow-up by smoking groups

From: Results from a community-based program evaluating the effect of changing smoking status on asthma symptom control

  Smokers Ex-smokers* Non-smokers New Smokers*
n % n % p-value n % n % p-value
Number of Patients 122   15    366   16   
Baseline demographics  
  Age (Mean ± SD) 39.13 ± 9.33 42.72 ± 8.10 0.128 40.82 ± 9.79 35.25 ± 6.93 0.007
  Females 99 81.1 12 80.0 1.000 285 77.9 11 68.8 0.370
  Residence 0.321   0.753
   Urban Area 12 9.8 3 20.0   91 24.9 3 18.8  
   Rural Area 48 39.3 7 46.7   146 39.9 6 37.5  
   Inner City Area 62 50.8 5 33.3   129 35.2 7 43.8  
  Education (university/college or above) 44 36.1 5 33.3 0.818 248 67.8 10 62.5 0.660
  Family Income ≤ $40,000 13 10.7 0 0.0 0.360 36 9.8 2 12.5 0.667
  Without a Drug Plan 36 29.5 4 26.7 0.942 83 22.9 9 56.3 0.005
Smoking Frequency at Baseline  
  Daily 113 92.6 10    n/a   n/a   
  Weekly 2 1.6 1    n/a   n/a   
  Less than once per week 7 5.7 4    n/a   n/a   
Smoking Frequency at 12-month Follow-up†  
  Daily 110 90.2 n/a    n/a   11   
  Weekly 4 3.3 n/a    n/a   2   
  Less than once per week 6 4.9 n/a    n/a   3   
  1. *denotes smoking status at 12-month follow-up.
  2. †missing data for 2 smokers at follow-up.
  3. Abbreviations: SD, standard deviation; n/a, not applicable.