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Table 1 Key terminology

From: High heterogeneity of HIV-related sexual risk among transgender people in Ontario, Canada: a province-wide respondent-driven sampling survey

Core gender one’s individual and core sense of being male or female, both or neither
Cisgender refers to individuals whose gender identity is consistent with the gender they were assigned at birth
Female-to-male spectrum (FTM) a trans man or a female-to-male transsexual or transgender person or a genderqueer person along the masculine spectrum
Gender spectrum refers to the fact that gender occurs on a spectrum, rather than as discrete categories; an individuals’ sense of core gender may fall at varying points along that spectrum
Genderqueer persons refers to people whose gender identities fall outside of the normative and binary female or male
Male-to-female spectrum (MTF) a trans woman or a male-to-female transsexual or transgender person or a genderqueer person along the feminine spectrum
Medical transition status the extent to which one has undergone a process of medically transitioning through use of hormones and/or surgeries to allow biological sex to more closely align with one’s core gender
Social transition status the extent to which one has changed the gender in which they live their day-to-day life to better align with their core gender; may involve changing a name, using a new pronoun, and/or changing gender-specific aspects of one’s social presentation
Transgender describes people who vary from conventionally prescribed gender norms
Transsexual refers to a person who identifies with a gender that is “opposite to” that assigned to them at birth
Transitioned people refers to those who identify simply as men or women with a medical history of transitioning sex, and no longer personally identify as transgender or transsexual
Trans people an umbrella term for a diverse group of people including transsexual, transgender, transitioned, genderqueer, and some Two-Spirit people, whose gender identity or expression differs from societal norms
Two-Spirit refers to North American Indigenous peoples who identify with elements of both male and female gender roles found in many traditional cultures; some but not all will identify along a trans spectrum