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Table 4 Univariate analysis comparing risk factors of HIV among Hijra Sex Workers in Larkana and other cities of Pakistan

From: Comparing risk factors of HIV among hijra sex workers in Larkana and other cities of Pakistan: an analytical cross sectional study

Variables Larkana
n = 199(32.1%)
Other Cities
n = 420(67.9%)
OR CI
Socio-demographic characteristics
Age(in years)     
19 28(4.5%) 23(3.7%) 5.84 2.81–12.15
20–24 47(7.6%) 71(11.5%) 3.17 1.73–5.83
25–29 68(11%) 131(21.2%) 2.49 1.42–4.38
30–34 36(5.8%) 99 (16%) 1.74 0.94–3.23
+35 20(3.2%) 96(15.5%) 1
Educational status     
Educated 64(10.4%) 152(36%) 1
Uneducated 135(21.9%) 268(64%) 1.21 0.85–1.74
Marital status     
Currently married 7(1.1%) 43(10.8%) 1
Unmarried 192(31%) 377(89.2%) 2.49 1.08–5.71
Belong to current city of residence     
No 22(3.6%) 309(73.2%) 1
Yes 177(28.6%) 111(26.8%) 2.99 1.83–4.90
Mode of income     
Other livelihood along with sex work 39 (6.3%) 241(38.9%) 1
Only sex work 160 (25.8% 179(28.9%) 5.52 3.70–8.23
Current living with     
· Others 13(6.53%) 2(0.5%) 1
· Alone 69(34%) 6(1.4%) 0.76 0.23–0.40
· Family or relatives 79(39%) 85(20%) 1.23 0.03–0.40
· Friends 38(19%) 332(78%) 0.21 0.12–0.38
Duration in sex work     
5 years or less 16(2.6%) 94(15.2%) 1
5.1–10 years 59(9.5%) 105(17%) 3.30 1.77–6.12
>10 years 124(20%) 221(35.7%) 3.29 1.85–5.85
Age at first intercourse     
8–15 151(24.4%) 272(44%) 1
15–20 45(7.3%) 144(23.3%) 0.31 0.11–2.78
<20 3(0.5%) 3(0.5%) 1.00 0.06–1.60
Client contact through     
Other 58(9.4%) 35(5.7%) 1
Pimp/Guru 40(6.5%) 105(17%) 0.23 0.13–0.40
Mobile phone 36(5.8%) 94(15.2%) 0.23 0.13–0.40
By roaming around 65(10.5%) 186(30) 0.21 0.12–0.35
In the last 12 months, have you been     
away from this city for sex work?     
No 116(18.8%) 290(46.9%) 1
Yes 83(13.4%) 129(20.9%) 1.60 1.13–2.28
Condom used last time when had     
anal intercourse with a paying client     
No 101(16.5%) 292(47.6%) 1
Yes 96(15.7%) 124(20.2%) 2.23 1.57–3.1
Have a condom with you now?     
Not had condom 107(17.3%) 269(43.5%) 1
Showed 92(14.9%) 151(24.4%) 1.53 1.08–2.15
Does HIV spread through sexual intercourse?     
No 12(2.7%) 11(2.4%) 1
Yes 125(27.8%) 302(67.1%) 2.63 1.13–6.13
Does HIV spread through sharp     
instruments/syringe?     
No 41(9.1%) 151(33.6%) 1
Yes 96(21.3%) 162(36%) 2.18 1.42–3.34
Does HIV spread through Insect bites?     
No 119(26.4%) 310(68.9%) 1
Yes 18(4%) 4(0.7%) 15.36 4.52–54.03
Does HIV spread through staying filthy?     
No 120(26.7%) 305(67.9%) 1 --
Yes 16(3.6%) 8(1.8%) 5.08 2.12–12.18
Does HIV spread through blood transfusion?     
No 56(12.4%) 242(53.8%) 1
Yes 81(18%) 71(15.8%) 4.93 3.20–7.58
Does HIV spread through staying filthy?     
Yes 6(1.3%) 49(10.9%) 1
No 129(28.8%) 264(58.9%) 3.99 1.66–9.55
Prevention is possible by using condoms     
No 6(1.3%) 177(39.5%) 1
Yes 124(27.7%) 141(31.5%) 25.94 11.10–60.1
Prevention is possible by refraining from sex     
Yes 55(12.3%) 260(58%) 1
No 75(16.7%) 58(12.9%) 6.11 3.90–9.58
Know where people can go, if they     
want to get an HIV/AIDS test?     
Yes 82(16.3%) 113(22.4%) 1
No 85(16.9%) 24(44.4%) 1.91 1.31–2.79
Ever tested for HIV?     
Yes 64(12.7%) 8(11.6%) 1
No 101(20.1%) 279(55.6%) 3.04 1.99–4.64
Use condom     
Yes 79(17.3%) 113(24.7%) 1
No 69(15.1%) 196(42.9%) 1.98 1.33–2.95
Wash with Dettol     
Yes 59(12.9%) 66(14.4%) 1
No 89(19.5%) 243(53.2%) 2.44 1.59–3.741
Take medicine     
Yes 54(11.8%) 82(17.9%) 1
No 94(20.6%) 227(49.7%) 1.59 1.04–2.419
Arrested in past 6 months     
Yes 81(13.1%) 41(6.6%) 1
No 117(19.0%) 378(61.3%) 6.38 4.15–9.803
Taken alcohol during sexual act in     
the past 6 months?     
No 88(14.2%) 125(20.2%) 1
Yes 111(17.9% 295(47.7%) 3.53 0.37–0.758
No 154(25.6%) 396(65.9%) 1
Yes 44(7.3%) 7(1.2%) 16.16 7.12–36.16
Given free condoms in the past one month     
Yes 118(19.1%) 116(18.7%) 1
No 81(13.1%) 304(49.1%) 3.81 2.67–5.443