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Table 2 Operationalization of the ultimate and distal potential influence factors of binge drinking

From: Predictors of binge drinking in adolescents: ultimate and distal factors - a representative study

  Constructs: Social/Interpersonal Operationalization Constructs: Attitudinal/Environment Operationalization Constructs: Intrapersonal Operationalization
Ultimate - Infrequent opportunities for rewards from family members
- Lack of parental warmth, support, or supervision
- Negative evaluations
from parents
- Home strain
- Parental divorce or separation
- Unconventional values of parents
- Unconventional values among peers
- Acknowledgment of success/rewards by parents
- Parental warmth in childhood
- Parental control/supervision in adolescence
- Parental separation events
- Cultural communication in the family
- Local crime and employment rates
- Inadequate schools
- Poor career and academic options
- Infrequent opportunities for rewards at school
- Negative evaluations from teachers
- Media descriptions of ISU
- Availability of substances
- Weak public policies on ISU
- Community/neighborhood cohesion
- Community/neighborhood/school safety
- Welfare status
- Violence level in the school
- Willingness of teachers to intervene during violent conflicts
- Violence/problems at school - aggressive behavior of teachers
- Genetic susceptibility to addiction
- Lack of impulse control
- External locus of control
- Aggressiveness
- Extroversion
- Sociability
- Risk-taking
- Sensation-seeking
- Neuroticism or emotional instability
- Intelligence
- Attention deficit disorder
- Risk-taking behavior
- School grades
Distal - Weak attachment, weak desire to please family members
- Strong attachment, strong desire to please peers
- Greater influence of peers than parents
- Substance-specific behaviors of role models
- Number of friends
- Number of delinquent friends
- Deviant/Assimilated behavior of one's own group of friends
- Smoking parents
- Weak commitment to conventional values, school, and religion
- Social alienation and criticism
- Weak desire for success and achievement
- Hedonic values and short-term gratification
- Rebelliousness
- Desire for independence from parents
- Tolerance of deviance
- Voluntary non-profit activities
- Religiosity
- School commitment
- Social integration in school
- Social Desirability/Conventional Values
- Planned type of school leaving certificate
- Absenteeism/Truancy
- Hedonistic reasons for truancy
- Low self-esteem
- Temporary anxiety, stress, or depressed mood
- Poor coping skills
- Inadequate social skills
- Weak academic skills
- Self-esteem
- Mental well-being/mood
- School anxiety
- Suicidal thoughts
- Mandatory repetition of school year