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Table 1 Matrix of influence factors of illicit substance use (ISU) according to Petraitis et al. (1998)

From: Predictors of binge drinking in adolescents: ultimate and distal factors - a representative study

Level of influence Types of influence
  Social/Interpersonal Attitudinal/Environment Intrapersonal
Ultimate Definition: Characteristics of the people who make up adolescents' most intimate social support system. These characteristics are not specific to ISU and are beyond the personal control of adolescents
Constructs: Infrequent opportunities for rewards from family members; lack of parental warmth, support, or supervision; negative evaluations from parents; home strain; parental divorce or separation; unconventional values of parents; unconventional values among peers
Definition: Aspects of adolescents' immediate surroundings, neighborhoods, social institutions, and culture that, although beyond the personal control of adolescents, put them at risk
Constructs: Local crime and employment rates; inadequate schools; poor career and academic options; infrequent opportunities for rewards at school; negative evaluations from teachers; media descriptions of ISU; availability of substances; weak public policies on ISU
Definition: Personality traits and intrapersonal characteristics that, although beyond the easy control of adolescents, might promote some internal motivation or make them susceptible to the physiological effects of ISU.
Constructs: Genetic susceptibility to addiction; lack of impulse control; external locus of control; aggressiveness; extroversion; sociability; risk-taking; sensation-seeking; neuroticism or emotional instability; intelligence
Distal Definition: Emotional attachments of adolescents and the substance-specific attitudes and behaviors of influential role models who encourage ISU
Constructs: Weak attachment to and weak desire to please family members; strong attachment to and strong desire to please peers; greater influence of peers than parents; substance-specific behaviors of role models
Definition: Personal values and behaviors of adolescents that contribute to their attitudes toward ISU
Constructs: Weak commitment to conventional values, school, and religion; social alienation and criticism; weak desire for success and achievement; hedonic values and short-term gratification; rebelliousness; desire for independence from parents; tolerance of deviance
Definition: Affective states
and general behavioral skills of adolescents that promote some internal motivation for ISU and that undermine their refusal skills
Constructs: Low self-esteem; temporary anxiety, stress, or depressed mood; poor coping skills; inadequate social skills; weak academic skills
Proximal Definition: Beliefs about the normative nature of ISU and pressures to use substances
Constructs: Prevalence estimates; motivation to comply with other users; beliefs that important others (i.e., friends, parents, and other role models) encourage ISU
Definition: Beliefs and evaluations about the costs and benefits of ISU
Constructs: Expected costs and benefits of ISU; evaluation of costs and benefits of ISU; attitudes of others toward ISU; attitudes of self toward ISU
Definition: Beliefs about one's ability to use or to avoid substances
Constructs: Refusal skills; determination to use substances; use self-efficacy; refusal self-efficacy
Immediate   Decision/intentions; trial and related behavior