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Table 2 Maternal and child health outcomes included in the study and their definitions

From: Inequities in maternal and child health outcomes and interventions in Ghana

Health outcome Definition/measurement
Infant mortality rate (IMR) Probability of dying between birth and exactly age 1
Under-five mortality rate (U5MR) Probability of dying between birth and exact age five
Perinatal mortality rate Includes pregnancy losses of at least seven months gestation (stillbirths) and deaths among live births that occurred within the first seven days of life (early neonatal deaths)
Stunting Height-for-age of under-five children below minus two standard deviations of the WHO Child Growth Standards median.
Underweight Weight-for-age of under-five children below minus two standard deviations of the WHO Child Growth Standards median.
Wasting Weight-for-height of under-five children below minus two standard deviations of the WHO Child Growth Standards median.
Anaemia in children 6-59 years Haemoglobin concentration below 11 g/dL
Acute respiratory infection (ARI) in children Cough accompanied by short, rapid breathing in the two weeks preceding the survey
Diarrhoea in children Mothers asked whether any of their children under five years of age had diarrhoea during the two weeks preceding the survey
Nutritional status of women age 15-49 years Defined as weight in Kilograms divided by height squared in metres (Kg/m2) (Body Mass Index - BMI). A BMI of < 18.5 was regarded as thin, 18.5-24.9 normal, 25-29.9 overweight, and ≥ 30 obese.
Anaemia in women age 15-49 years Haemoglobin concentration below 11 g/dL in pregnant women and below 19 g/dL in non-pregnant women