Skip to main content

Table 5 Adjusted rate ratios (95% CIs) for the longitudinal associations between selected individual/social distal and ultimate variables and multiple behavioral risk factors (n = 1135), National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, 2000-2005a

From: Individual and social determinants of multiple chronic disease behavioral risk factors among youth

  Rate ratiob 95% CIc Rate ratiob 95% CIc Rate ratiob 95% CIc Rate ratiob 95% CIc
  Model 1    Model 2    Model 3    Model 4   
  Individual characteristics    Individual characteristics    Individual characteristics    Individual characteristics   
  Distal    Distal    Distal    Distal   
  Self-esteemd 0.97 0.97, 0.98 Self-esteemd 0.98 0.97, 0.98 Self-esteemd 0.98 0.98, 0.99 Self-esteemd 0.98 0.98, 0.99
  Academic performance    Academic performance    Academic performance    Academic performance   
  Poor/very
poor
1 Referent Poor/very
poor
1 Referent Poor/very
poor
1 Referent Poor/very
poor
1 Referent
  Average 0.93 0.85, 1.01 Average 0.93 0.85, 1.01 Average 0.98 0.88, 1.09 Average 0.98 0.88, 1.09
  Well 0.88 0.80, 0.96 Well 0.88 0.80, 0.97 Well 0.94 0.84, 1.05 Well 0.94 0.84, 1.04
  Very well 0.88 0.79, 0.97 Very well 0.88 0.79, 0.98 Very well 0.96 0.86, 1.08 Very well 0.96 0.85, 1.08
  Time    Ultimate    Ultimate    Ultimate   
  1 (Cycle 4) 1 Referent Sex    Sex    Sex   
  2 (Cycle 5) 1.08 1.03, 1.14 Female 1 Referent Female 1 Referent Female 1 Referent
  3 (Cycle 6) 1.37 1.30, 1.44 Male 1.00 0.95, 1.05 Male 1.01 0.97, 1.05 Male 1.01 0.97, 1.05
  Intercept 3.38 3.00, 3.81 Age, yearse    Age, yearse    Age, yearse   
     10 1 Referent 10 1 Referent 10 1 Referent
     11 1.07 1.01, 1.13 11 1.01 0.96, 1.06 11 1.01 0.96, 1.06
     Anxietyf 1.01 1.00, 1.02 Anxietyf 1.00 0.99, 1.01 Anxietyf 1.01 1.00, 1.01
     Time    Social characteristics    Social characteristics   
     1 (Cycle 4) 1 Referent Distal    Distal   
     2 (Cycle 5) 1.09 1.03, 1.14 PMK smoking status    PMK smoking status   
     3 (Cycle 6) 1.37 1.30, 1.44 Nonsmoker 1 Referent Nonsmoker 1 Referent
     Intercept 3.09 2.66, 3.60 Smoker 1.10 1.05, 1.16 Smoker 1.11 1.05, 1.16
        PMK drinking status    PMK drinking status   
        Nondrinker 1 Referent Nondrinker 1 Referent
        Drinker 1.01 0.97, 1.06 Drinker 1.01 0.97, 1.05
        Parent-child relationshipg 1.00 0.99, 1.00 Parent-child relationshipg 1.00 0.99, 1.00
        Peer smoking    Peer smoking   
        No peers 1 Referent No peers 1 Referent
        A few peers 1.13 1.06, 1.21 A few peers 1.14 1.07, 1.22
        Most/All peers 1.40 1.27, 1.54 Most/All peers 1.41 1.28, 1.55
        Peer drinking    Peer drinking   
        No peers 1 Referent No peers 1 Referent
        A few peers 1.12 1.05, 1.20 A few peers 1.12 1.04, 1.19
        Most/All peers 1.24 1.15, 1.35 Most/All peers 1.23 1.14, 1.34
        Peer-child relationshiph 1.00 0.99, 1.00 Peer-child relationshiph 0.99 0.99, 1.00
        Time    Social characteristics   
        1 (Cycle 4) 1 Referent Ultimate   
        2 (Cycle 5) 1.05 0.99, 1.10 Family structure   
        3 (Cycle 6) 1.15 1.08, 1.23 2 parents 1 Referent
        Intercept 3.04 2.60, 3.35 1 parent 1.04 0.97, 1.12
           PMK Education   
           Low (< 12 years
of school)
1 Referent
           High (≥l2 years
of school)
0.99 0.94, 1.05
           Annual
household
income
  
           < CAN$30,000 1 Referent
           CAN$30,000- 59,999 1.00 0.94. 1.08
           CAN$60,000- 89,999 1.09 1.00, 1.17
           ≥CAN$90,000 1.04 0.96, 1.12
           Time   
           1 (Cycle 4) 1 Referent
           2 (Cycle 5) 1.04 0.99, 1.10
           3 (Cycle 6) 1.15 1.08, 1.22
           Intercept 2.95 2.49, 3.50
-2 Log Li 1294.37    1285.03    1097.17    1086.24   
Log L ratioj 76.94***    9.34**    187.86***    10.93*   
DF 4    3    8    5   
  1. CAN = Canadian; CI = confidence interval; DF = degrees of freedom; PMK = person most knowledgeable.
  2. a Multiple behavioral risk factor score was the dependent variable.
  3. b Adjusted rate ratios from the multivariate longitudinal Poisson regression model with adjustment for all covariates in the corresponding model and time (cycles).
  4. c CIs were computed using bootstrap weights to account for the complex sampling design of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth.
  5. d Self-esteem was assessed using a global score ranging from 0 to 16, with higher scores indicating positive self-esteem.
  6. e Age at baseline (Cycle 4).
  7. f Anxiety was assessed using a global score ranging from 0 to 14, with higher scores indicating the presence of greater anxiety.
  8. g The parent-child relationship was assessed using a global score ranging from 0 to 28, with higher scores indicating a better relationship between parents and child.
  9. h Peer-child relationships were assessed using a global score ranging from 0 to 16, with higher scores indicating a better relationship between the child and his/her peers.
  10. i -2 (log-likelihood) for the model containing each specific block of distal and ultimate variables. The -2 (log-likelihood) of the initial (intercept-only + time) model was 1371.31.
  11. j Log-likelihood ratio or change in -2 (log-likelihood) is presented for each block of distal or ultimate variables entered in the multivariate model. At each step, the log-likelihood of the bigger model was compared to the log-likelihood of the previous smaller model.
  12. *p = .05; **p < .05; ***p < .001.