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Table 4 Rate ratios (95% CIs) for the longitudinal associations between selected social distal and social ultimate variables and multiple behavioral risk factors (n = 1135), National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, 2000-2005a

From: Individual and social determinants of multiple chronic disease behavioral risk factors among youth

  Rate ratiob 95% CIc Rate ratiob 95% CIc Rate ratiob 95% CIc
  Model 1    Model 2    Model 3   
  Social characteristics    Social characteristics    Social characteristics   
  Ultimate    Distal    Ultimate   
  Family structure    PMK smoking status    Family structure   
  2 parents 1 Referent Nonsmoker 1 Referent 2 parents 1 Referent
  1 parent 1.07 0.98, 1.17 Smoker 1.10 1.05, 1.15 1 parent 1.05 0.97, 1.12
  PMK Education    PMK drinking status    PMK Education   
  Low (< 12 years of school) 1 Referent Nondrinker 1 Referent Low (< 12 years of school) 1 Referent
  High (≥l2 years of school) 0.94 0.88, 1.01 Drinker 1.01 0.97, 1.06 High (≥l2 years of school) 0.98 0.92, 1.04
  Annual household income    Parent-child relationshipd 0.99 0.99, 1.00 Annual household income   
  < CAN$30,000 1 Referent Peer smoking    < CAN$30,000 1 Referent
  CAN$30,000 -59,999 1.01 0.94, 1.09 No peers 1 Referent CAN$30,000 -59,999 1.01 0.94, 1.08
  CAN$60,000 -89,999 1.07 0.98, 1.16 A few peers 1.14 1.06, 1.22 CAN$60,000 -89,999 1.09 1.00, 1.17
  ≥CAN$90,000 1.03 0.93, 1.13 Most/All peers 1.41 1.27, 1.56 ≥CAN$90,000 1.04 0.96, 1.14
  Time    Peer drinking    Distal   
  1 (Cycle 4) 1 Referent No peers 1 Referent PMK smoking status   
  2 (Cycle 5) 1.10 1.05, 1.16 A few peers 1.13 1.06, 1.21 Nonsmoker 1 Referent
  3 (Cycle 6) 1.41 1.34, 1.49 Most/All peers 1.26 1.17, 1.37 Smoker 1.10 1.05, 1.15
  Intercept 2.10 1.94, 2.29 Peer-child relationshipe 0.99 0.98, 1.00 PMK drinking status   
     Time    Nondrinker 1 Referent
     1 (Cycle 4) 1 Referent Drinker 1.01 0.97, 1.05
     2 (Cycle 5) 1.06 1.01, 1.11 Parent-child relationshipd 0.99 0.99, 1.00
     3 (Cycle 6) 1.16 1.09, 1.24 Peer smoking   
     Intercept 2.75 2.45, 3.08 No peers 1 Referent
        A few peers 1.14 1.06, 1.22
        Most/All peers 1.41 1.27, 1.57
        Peer drinking   
        No peers 1 Referent
        A few peers 1.13 1.06, 1.21
        Most/All peers 1.26 1.17, 1.36
        Peer-child relationshipe 0.99 0.98, 1.00
        Time   
        1 (Cycle 4) 1 Referent
        2 (Cycle 5) 1.05 1.00, 1.11
        3 (Cycle 6) 1.15 1.08, 1.23
        Intercept 2.71 2.39, 3.07
-2 Log Lf 1349.28    1117.23    1107.07   
Log L ratiog 22.03***    254.07***    264.24***   
DF 5    8    13   
  1. CAN = Canadian; CI = confidence interval; DF = degrees of freedom; PMK = person most knowledgeable.
  2. a Multiple behavioral risk factor score was the dependent variable.
  3. b Rate ratios from the multivariate longitudinal Poisson regression model with adjustment for all covariates in the corresponding model and time (cycles).
  4. c CIs were computed using bootstrap weights to account for the complex sampling design of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth.
  5. d The parent-child relationship was assessed using a global score ranging from 0 to 28, with higher scores indicating a better relationship between parents and child.
  6. e Peer-child relationships were assessed using a global score ranging from 0 to 16, with higher scores indicating a better relationship between the child and his/her peers.
  7. f -2 (log-likelihood) for the model containing each specific block of distal and/or ultimate variables. The -2 (log-likelihood) of the initial (intercept-only + time) model was 1371.31.
  8. g Log-likelihood ratio or change in -2 (log-likelihood) compared to the initial (intercept-only + time) model.
  9. ***p < .001.