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Table 3 Rate ratios (95% CIs) for the longitudinal associations between selected individual distal and individual ultimate variables and multiple behavioral risk factors (n = 1135), National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, 2000-2005a

From: Individual and social determinants of multiple chronic disease behavioral risk factors among youth

  Rate ratiob 95% CIc Rate ratiob 95% CIc Rate ratiob 95% CIc
  Model 1    Model 2    Model 3   
  Individual characteristics    Individual characteristics    Individual characteristics   
  Ultimate    Distal    Ultimate   
  Sex    Self-esteemf 0.97 0.97, 0.98 Sex   
  Female 1 Referent Academic performance    Female 1 Referent
  Male 1.01 0.96, 1.06 Poor/very poor 1 Referent Male 1.00 0.95, 1.05
  Age, yearsd    Average 0.93 0.85, 1.01 Age, yearsd   
  10 1 Referent Well 0.88 0.80, 0.96 10 1 Referent
  11 1.08 1.02, 1.15 Very well 0.88 0.79, 0.97 11 1.07 1.01, 1.13
  Anxietye 1.02 1.01, 1.03 Time    Anxietye 1.01 1.00, 1.02
  Time    1 (Cycle 4) 1 Referent Distal   
  1 (Cycle 4) 1 Referent 2 (Cycle 5) 1.08 1.03, 1.14 Self-esteemf 0.98 0.97, 0.98
  2 (Cycle 5) 1.11 1.06, 1.17 3 (Cycle 6) 1.37 1.30, 1.44 Academic performance   
  3 (Cycle 6) 1.43 1.35, 1.50 Intercept 3.38 3.00, 3.81 Poor/very poor 1 Referent
  Intercept 1.89 1.78, 2.01     Average 0.93 0.85, 1.01
        Well 0.88 0.80, 0.97
        Very well 0.88 0.79, 0.98
        Time   
        1 (Cycle 4) 1 Referent
        2 (Cycle 5) 1.09 1.03, 1.14
        3 (Cycle 6) 1.37 1.30, 1.44
        Intercept 3.09 2.66, 3.60
-2 Log Lg 1335.42    1294.37    1285.03   
Log L ratioh 35.90***    76.94***    86.28***   
DF 3    4    7   
  1. CI = confidence interval; DF = degrees of freedom.
  2. a Multiple behavioral risk factor score was the dependent variable.
  3. b Rate ratios from the multivariate longitudinal Poisson regression model with adjustment for all covariates in the corresponding model and time (cycles).
  4. c CIs were computed using bootstrap weights to account for the complex sampling design of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth.
  5. d Age at baseline (Cycle 4).
  6. e Anxiety was assessed using a global score ranging from 0 to 14, with higher scores indicating the presence of greater anxiety.
  7. f Self-esteem was assessed using a global score ranging from 0 to 16, with higher scores indicating positive self-esteem.
  8. g-2 (log-likelihood) for the model containing each specific block of distal and/or ultimate variables. The -2 (log-likelihood) of the initial (intercept-only + time) model was 1371.31.
  9. h Log-likelihood ratio or change in -2 (log-likelihood) compared to the initial (intercept-only + time) model.
  10. ***p < .001.