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Table 1 Comparison of baseline characteristics of children in the study cohort and of subjects lost to follow-up or excluded because of incomplete data, National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, 2000-2005

From: Individual and social determinants of multiple chronic disease behavioral risk factors among youth

  Study cohort, %a Subjects lost, %a pvalueb
  (n = 1135) (n = 946)  
Individual characteristics    
   Ultimate    
Sex    .03
Female 51 46  
   Age, years    .26
10 50 53  
11 50 47  
Anxiety, mean (SE)c 3.4 (0.1) 3.7 (0.1) .02
   Distal    
Self-esteem, mean (SE)d 13.7 (0.1) 13.3 (0.1) <.001
Academic performance    .56
Poor/very poor 2 1  
Average 18 19  
Well 46 46  
Very well 34 34  
   Social characteristics    
   Ultimate    
Family structure    .005
2 parents 84 79  
1 parent 16 21  
PMK Education    <.001
Low (< 12 years of school) 19 28  
High (≥12 years of school) 81 73  
Annual household income, CAN $    <.001
< 30,000 15 21  
30,000-59,999 31 40  
60,000-89,999 31 23  
≥ 90,000 23 16  
   Distal    
PMK smoking status    .03
Tobacco smoker 26 30  
PMK drinking status    .61
Alcohol drinker 28 27  
Parent-child relationship, mean (SE)e 22.9 (0.2) 22.3 (0.2) .005
Peer smoking    .94
No peers 95 96  
A few peers 4 3  
Most/all peers 1 1  
Peer drinking    .05
No peers 97 95  
A few peers 2 4  
Most/all peers 1 1  
Peer-child relationship, mean (SE)f 12.8 (0.1) 12.8 (0.1) .86
   Lifestyle risk factors    
Physical inactivityg 50 54 .09
Sedentary behaviorh 42 46 .11
Ever smokingi 6 7 .60
Ever drinkingj 6 10 .005
High body mass indexk 23 29 .004
  1. CAN = Canadian; PMK = person most knowledgeable; SE = standard error.
  2. a Weighted percentage expressed in terms of the proportion of Canadian children aged 10-11 years in Cycle 4 and followed biennially until Cycle 6 of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth.
  3. b p value from a chi-squared test or t test.
  4. c Anxiety was assessed using a global score ranging from 0 to 14, with higher scores indicating the presence of greater anxiety.
  5. d Self-esteem was assessed using a global score ranging from 0 to 16, with higher scores indicating positive self-esteem.
  6. e The parent-child relationship was assessed using a global score ranging from 0 to 28, with higher scores indicating a better relationship between parents and child.
  7. f Peer-child relationships were assessed using a global score ranging from 0 to 16, with higher scores indicating a better relationship between the child and his/her peers.
  8. g Engaging in organized/unorganized physical activities fewer than 4 times per week.
  9. h Watching television or videos for more than 2 hours per day.
  10. i Ever smoking a cigarette, even a few puffs.
  11. j Ever having a standard drink of alcohol.
  12. k Being overweight/obese, as defined by cutoff points of Cole and colleagues [54].