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Table 1 Characteristics of 1466 urban Ghanaians with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or hypertension

From: Diabetes mellitus type 2 in urban Ghana: characteristics and associated factors

Characteristics Total Controls Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) DM2 without hypertension DM2 with hypertension
No. 1466a 377 675 251 424
Age (years) 50.6 ± 15.3 38.8 ± 14.8 54.7 ± 13.4* 48.6 ± 14.0* 58.3 ± 11.6*
Sex (female, %) 75.9 (1113) 76.4 (288) 74.7 (504) 71.7 (180) 76.2 (323)
Ethnic group (Akan, %) 87.2 (1277) 84.4 (318) 87.8 (592) 83.6 (209) 90.3 (383)
Residence (Kumasi metropolitan, %) 73.8 (1079) 79.3 (299) 70.8 (476) 68.7 (171) 72.1 (305)
Clinical data      
   Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l) 6.28 ± 3.52 4.5 ± 0.7 8.28 ± 4.33* 9.0 ± 4.6* 7.92 ± 4.11*
   Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 134.5 ± 23.2 116.0 ± 11.3 138.3 ± 23.9* 118.6 ± 12.6 149.8 ± 21.3*
   Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 84.8 ± 12.6 76.0 ± 7.5 85.1 ± 12.1* 76.5 ± 7.4 90.2 ± 11.4*
   Triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.44 ± 0.74 1.15 ± 0.56 1.55 ± 0.81* 1.40 ± 0.64* 1.65 ± 0.88*
   Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 6.08 ± 1.75 5.73 ± 1.61 5.95 ± 1.71 5.63 ± 1.54 6.13 ± 1.78
   HDL-cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.35 ± 0.40 1.38 ± 0.41 1.29 ± 0.40* 1.31 ± 0.42 1.28 ± 0.39*
   LDL-cholesterol (mmol/l) 4.05 ± 1.41 3.82 ± 1.31 3.92 ± 1.36 3.66 ± 1.24 4.07 ± 1.41
   Urinary albumin (mg/l) 13.0 (3.3-149.9) 9.0 (4.9-150.1) 14.5 (3.3-150.1)* 10.5 (4.9-150.0) 17.5 (3.3-150.0)*
Anthropometric data      
   Waist-to-hip ratio 0.88 ± 0.08 0.83 ± 0.09 0.91 ± 0.07* 0.89 ± 0.07* 0.92 ± 0.07*
   Body mass index (kg/m2) 25.8 ± 5.25 24.6 ± 4.9 25.9 ± 5.1* 24.8 ± 5.3 26.5 ± 4.8*
   Body fat by BIA (%)b 30.2 ± 9.9 28.8 ± 9.6 29.8 ± 10.1 27.9 ± 10.9 30.9 ± 9.4
History and activity      
Diabetes family history (yes, %) 39.9 (585) 26.3 (99) 57.9 (391)* 59.0 (148)* 57.3 (243)*
Hypertension family history (yes, %) 41.5 (608) 30.2 (114) 40.7 (275)* 31.1 (78) 46.5 (197)*
Smoking status (ever, %) c 5.7 (84) 3.7 (14) 7.3 (49) 7.2 (18) 7.3 (31)
Type of main work (light, %) 88.7 (1250) 92.3 (335) 86.1 (558) 83.8 (202) 87.5 (356)
Working time (h/week) 49.3 ± 22.1 48.4 ± 18.3 49.0 ± 24.0 50.0 ± 24.4 48.1 ± 23.6
Recreational sports (yes, %) 21.2 (311) 22.5 (85) 22.2 (150) 19.5 (49) 23.8 (101)
Energy expenditure (MJ/d) 6.30 ± 3.57 5.34 ± 3.00 6.84 ± 3.70* 6.41 ± 3.54* 7.10 ± 3.78*
Socio-economic data      
Literacy (illiterate, %) 35.2 (514) 21.3 (80) 45.8 (308)* 45.0 (113) 46.3 (195)*
Unemployed (%) 26.4 (386) 9.8 (37) 36.9 (248)* 24.7 (62)* 44.2 (186)*
No. of people per household 5 (1-100) 5 (1-70) 6 (1-100)* 6 (1-100)* 6 (1-100)*
Wealth scored 0.58 ± 0.17 0.60 ± 0.15 0.57 ± 0.18 0.55 ± 0.18* 0.58 ± 0.18
  1. Values are expressed as means ± standard deviation, median (range) or % (n). *, as compared to controls, P < 0.001; , as compared to controls, P < 0.05; a, Data of the remaining 414 patients with hypertension only are presented in Additional file 2: Table S2; b, measured by bioelectric impedance analysis; c, includes current and quit smoking; d, proportion positive of 11 markers of wealth: electricity, pipe-borne water, radio, fan, cupboard, television, bicycle, motor-bike, refrigerator, car/truck/tractor, cattle