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Table 2 The strength of association between HRQoL and smoking status (N = 12,887)

From: Smoking and health-related quality of life in English general population: implications for economic evaluations

Smoking status Mean score* M** SC** UA** PD** AD**
Never smoker (Ref)       
Ex-occasional smoker -.002 0.99 0.88 1.12 1.07 1.11
Ex-regular smoker -.017 1.18 1.11 1.11 1.28 1.16
Light smoker -.021 1.13 1.25 0.95 1.34 1.43
Moderate smoker -.033 1.55 1.45 1.37 1.36 1.49
Heavy smoker -.052 1.67 1.70 1.42 1.46 1.86
Correlation (predicted, observed) 0.61 0.63 0.51 0.59 0.53 0.34
R-squared (OLS)/pseudo R-squared (logistic regressions) 0.37 0.39 0.38 0.34 0.24 0.11
  1. * Coefficient (OLS, EQ-5D tariff)
  2. ** Odds ratio (Logistic regressions, EQ-5D dimensions)
  3. OLS = Ordinary Least Squares; M = Mobility; SC = Self-care; UA = Usual Activity;
  4. PD = Pain/discomfort; AD = Anxiety/depression. A boldface indicates a significant p-value at < .05