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Table 2 Ideal and actual levels of involvement of community pharmacists and most appropriate primary-care providers for these services

From: Ideal and actual involvement of community pharmacists in health promotion and prevention: a cross-sectional study in Quebec, Canada

Services Very involved n (%) Involved n (%) Little involved n (%) Not at all involved n (%)
Ideal level of involvement     
Lifestyle     
   Smoking cessation 478 (84.3) 85 (15.0) 4 (0.7) 0 (0)
   Physical-activity promotion 94 (16.6) 403 (71.1) 68 (12.0) 2 (0.4)
   Healthy eating 97 (17.2) 389 (68.8) 76 (13.5) 3 (0.5)
   Weight management 128 (22.6) 359 (63.4) 75 (13.3) 4 (0.7)
   Alcohol consumption 80 (14.1) 361 (63.8) 117 (20.7) 8 (1.4)
   Dental health 27 (4.8) 231 (40.9) 281 (49.7) 26 (4.6)
Screening for:     
   Hypertension 464 (81.8) 96 (16.9) 7 (1.2) 0 (0)
   Diabetes 431 (76.0) 127 (22.4) 9 (1.6) 0 (0)
   Dyslipidemia 322 (56.9) 217 (38.3) 24 (4.2) 3 (0.5)
   Risk of suicide 138 (24.4) 266 (47.1) 148 (26.2) 13 (2.3)
Sexual health     
Emergency oral
contraception
505 (89.1) 58 (10.2) 3 (0.5) 1 (0.2)
   Contraception 361 (63.7) 191 (33.7) 15 (2.6) 0 (0)
   Counseling with partners when initiating treatment for sexually transmitted diseases 350 (61.7) 194 (34.2) 21 (3.7) 2 (0.4)
Infectious diseases and immunization     
   Travel health 242 (42.8) 276 (48.8) 44 (7.8) 4 (0.7)
   Needle-exchange programs 259 (45.8) 236 (41.8) 60 (10.6) 10 (1.8)
   Immunization programs 163 (28.8) 313 (55.4) 82 (14.5) 7 (1.2)
Actual level of involvement     
   Lifestyle 32 (5.7) 232 (41.3) 243 (43.2) 55 (9.8)
   Screening for hypertension 252 (44.5) 267 (47.2) 42 (7.4) 5 (0.9)
   Screening for diabetes 198 (34.7) 255 (44.7) 100 (17.5) 17 (3.0)
   Screening for dyslipidemia 37 (6.5) 150 (26.5) 177 (31.3) 202 (35.7)
   Sexual health 109 (19.3) 274 (48.5) 147 (26.0) 35 (6.2)
   Infectious diseases and immunization 48 (8.6) 189 (33.8) 216 (38.6) 107 (19.1)
Most appropriate providersa Primary care physicians n (%) Community pharmacists n (%) Nurses n (%) Other or nonen
n (%)
   Lifestyle 327 (61.0) 379 (70.7) 354 (66.0) 166 (31.0)b
   Screening for hypertension 399 (71.6) 520 (93.4) 429 (77.0) 22 (4.0)c
   Screening for dyslipidemia 443 (83.1) 328 (61.5) 311 (58.3) 22(4.2)d
   Screening for diabetes 419 (75.2) 494 (88.7) 442 (79.4) 27 (4.9)e
   Sexual health 427 (77.6) 488 (88.7) 416 (75.6) 13 (2.3)f
   Infectious diseases and immunization 371 (70.3) 313 (59.3) 450 (85.2) 17 (3.2)g
  1. aMore than one item could be checked.
  2. bOther includes kinesiologists (n = 48); nutritionists (n = 46); physiotherapists (n = 28); personal trainers in gyms (n = 12); dieticians (n = 12); occupational therapists (n = 11); physical educators in schools (n = 10); all health professionals as multidisciplinary teams (n = 7); government (n = 5); public-health agencies (n = 4); technical assistants (n = 2); local community service centre (CLSC) (n = 2); community support groups (n = 2); technicians (n = 2); recreation consultants (n = 1); and pharmacy students (n = 1).
  3. cOther includes technical assistants (n = 9); pharmacy students (n = 3); technicians (n = 3); the patient him/herself (n = 3); and CLSC (n = 2).
  4. dOther includes nutritionists (n = 6); technical assistants (n = 1); CLSC (n = 1); dieticians (n = 1); and pharmacy students (n = 1).
  5. eOther includes technical assistants (n = 8); nutritionists (n = 7); dieticians (n = 3); diabetes clinic (n = 3); CLSC (n = 2); physiotherapists (n = 1); technicians (n = 1); and the patient him/herself (n = 1).
  6. fOther includes CLSC (n = 5); schools (n = 3); public-health agencies (n = 1); and sexologists (n = 1).
  7. gOther includes travel clinic (n = 5); CLSC (n = 4); and public-health agencies (n = 1).