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Table 1 Definition of variables, source, reference years and expected signal

From: Infant mortality in Brazil, 1980-2000: A spatial panel data analysis

Variable name Code Description Source Reference years Expected signal
Infant Mortality Rate imr Number of people that will not complete 1 year of life from 1,000 born alive in the reference year. IPEAdata, UNDP (Humand Development Atlas of Brazil) 1980, 1991 and 2000  
log(Intant Mortality Rate) l_imr Logarithm of the Infant Mortality Rate. IPEAdata, UNDP (Humand Development Atlas of Brazil) 1980, 1991 and 2000 Dependent
Number of public health care institutions per 1,000 people pub_hospit Number of public health care institutions in the MCA divided by the population and multiplied by 1,000. DATASUS - Ministry of Health 1981, 1990 and 1999* -
Number of private health care institutions per 1,000 people priv_hospit Number of private health care institutions in the MCA divided by the population and multiplied by 1,000. DATASUS - Ministry of Health 1981, 1990 and 1999* -
% of households with access to water water access Percentage of households with access to water. Microdata of the Demographic Census (IBGE) 1980, 1991 and 2000 -
% of households with access to sanitation sanitation Percentage of households with access to sanitation. Microdata of the Demographic Census (IBGE) 1980, 1991 and 2000 -
Average income (2000 R$) average income Average household per capita income. Microdata of the Demographic Census (IBGE) 1980, 1991 and 2000 -
Gini Index gini Gini index (ranges from 0 - complete equality - to 1 - only one person concentrates the income), obtained from the per capita household income. Microdata of the Demographic Census (IBGE) 1980, 1991 and 2000 +/-
Female illiteracy rate (15 years old or more) fem_illiteracy Number of women older than 15 years that are illiterate over the total of women older than 15. Microdata of the Demographic Census (IBGE) 1980, 1991 and 2000  
% of urban population %urban_pop Percentage of people living in the urban area of the MCA. Microdata of the Demographic Census (IBGE) 1980, 1991 and 2000 -
Adolescent fertility rate (10-19 years old) adol_fertility Percentage of women from 10-19 years old with children. Microdata of the Demographic Census (IBGE) 1980, 1991 and 2000 +
W * Number of public health care institutions per 1,000 people W*pub_hospit Spatial lag (average of the neighbors) of the number of public health care instituitions over 1,000 people. DATASUS - Ministry of Health 1981, 1990 and 1999* -
W * Number of private health care institutions per 1,000 people W*priv_hospit Spatial lag (average of the neighbors) of the number of private health care instituitions over 1,000 people. DATASUS - Ministry of Health 1981, 1990 and 1999* -
W * % of households with access to water W*water access Spatial lag (average of the neighbors) of the percentage of households with access to water. Microdata of the Demographic Census (IBGE) 1980, 1991 and 2000 -
W * % of households with access to sanitation W*sanitation Spatial lag (average of the neighbors) of the percentage of households with access to sanitation. Microdata of the Demographic Census (IBGE) 1980, 1991 and 2000 -
  1. *with respect to population in 1980, 1991 and 2000, respectively.