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Table 2 Means and frequencies of the environmental factors in the total sample and subgroups

From: Physical environmental factors related to walking and cycling in older adults: the Belgian aging studies

Environmental factors Total sample Urban Semi-urban Rural < 75 years ≥ 75 years Males Females
Access to services         
Short distances to services (/5)1 3.9 ± 1.4 4.0 ± 1.4 3.9 ± 1.4 3.8 ± 1.5 4.0 ± 1.4 3.8 ± 1.5 4.0 ± 1.4 3.8 ± 1.5
Number of shops (/13) 9.7 ± 3.7 9.9 ± 3.5 9.5 ± 3.8 9.6 ± 3.8 9.8 ± 3.7 9.5 ± 3.7 9.7 ± 3.7 9.6 ± 3.7
Public transport (/5) 3.6 ± 1.1 3.8 ± 1.1 3.5 ± 1.1 3.4 ± 1.2 3.6 ± 1.1 3.6 ± 1.1 3.6 ± 1.1 3.5 ± 1.1
Walking facilities         
Presence of public toilets (%)2 57.5 55.0 57.9 59.7 56.7 58.6 56.0 58.7
Presence of benches (%) 61.0 62.5 60.2 60.6 61.4 60.6 61.2 60.7
Presence of crossings (%) 74.7 77.4 73.6 73.1 75.3 74.0 75.4 74.1
Condition of sidewalks (/5) 2.9 ± 1.3 2.7 ± 1.3 2.9 ± 1.2 3.0 ± 1.2 2.9 ± 1.2 2.9 ± 1.3 2.9 ± 1.2 2.8 ± 1.3
Absence of high ramps (/5) 4.6 ± 1.0 4.6 ± 1.0 4.6 ± 1.0 4.5 ± 1.0 4.6 ± 1.0 4.5 ± 1.0 4.6 ± 1.0 4.5 ± 1.0
Safety         
Traffic safety (%) 67.9 67.3 67.9 68.7 69.7 65.7 70.7 65.6
Feelings of unsafety (/8) 3.5 ± 1.1 3.6 ± 1.1 3.4 ± 1.1 3.4 ± 1.1 3.4 ± 1.0 3.5 ± 1.1 3.3 ± 1.0 3.6 ± 1.1
Street lighting (%) 81.4 83.9 80.6 79.8 81.8 80.9 81.7 81.2
Aesthetics         
Absence of decay (%) 92.9 90.7 93.5 94.6 92.4 93.6 92.8 93.1
Absence of noise (%) 80.9 78.7 80.9 83.2 80.1 81.9 80.1 81.6
Greenery (/5) 3.7 ± 1.0 3.7 ± 1.1 3.6 ± 1.0 3.7 ± 1.0 3.7 ± 1.0 3.6 ± 1.0 3.7 ± 1.0 3.6 ± 1.0
Objective data         
Public transportation subscriptions
(% of older adults)
0.7 ± 0.6 1.0 ± 0.8 0.6 ± 0.4 0.6 ± 0.3 / / / /
  1. 1 For all factors higher scores represent more positive perceptions, except for feelings of unsafety
  2. 2 Frequency percentages represent the percentage of participants perceiving the hypothesized positive aspect of the environmental factor to be present