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Table 3 Absolute and relative inequalities in cardiovascular risk factors in women (95% CIs in parentheses) by age-group

From: Persistent socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular risk factors in England over 1994-2008: A time-trend analysis of repeated cross-sectional data

  Current smoking Obesity Diabetes High levels of physical activity High blood pressure (SBP ≥ 140 mmHg) Raised cholesterol (TC ≥ 5 mmol/l) ≥ 5 portions of fruit & vegetables
16-54        
Absolute difference
Model 1a §        
Q1 (reference) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Q2 3.0 (1.9,4.2) 1.8 (0.8,2.7) -0.2 (-0.6,0.3) 0.2 (-1.9,2.3) 0.2 (-0.5,0.9) 1.9 (-0.9,4.7) -1.7 (-3.5,0.1)
Q3 8.1 (6.9,9.3) 4.4 (3.4,5.4) 0.2 (-0.3,0.6) -0.3 (-2.4,1.8) 1.5 (0.8,2.3) 1.7 (-1.1,4.4) -3.9 (-5.7,-2.1)
Q4 13.8 (12.6,15.0) 6.9 (5.9,8.0) 0.2 (-0.3,0.6) -0.8 (-2.9,1.2) 1.7 (1.0,2.5) 0.6 (-2.1,3.4) -5.9 (-7.6,-4.1)
Q5 20.1 (18.8,21.4) 10.5 (9.4,11.5) 1.1 (0.6,1.7) -3.5 (-5.6,-1.5) 1.6 (0.8,2.5) 3.2 (0.4,6.0) -10.4 (-12.2,-8.7)
Model 2a 5.1 (4.8,5.4) 2.6 (2.4,2.8) 0.3 (0.1,0.4) -0.8 (-1.2,-0.3) 0.5 (0.3,0.7) 0.5 (-0.1,1.1) -2.5 (-2.9,-2.1)
Model 3a p = 0.116 p = 0.611 p = 0.222 p = 0.082 p = 0.050 p = 0.249| p = 0.991
Relative (PR)
Model 1b §§        
Q1 (reference) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Q2 1.15 (1.09,1.21) 1.13 (1.06,1.21) 0.85 (0.54,1.33) 1.00 (0.93,1.09) 1.02 (0.92,1.14) 1.02 (0.98,1.05) 0.94 (0.89,1.00)
Q3 1.39 (1.32,1.46) 1.32 (1.24,1.41) 1.16 (0.77,1.77) 0.99 (0.91,1.07) 1.22 (1.10,1.34) 1.02 (0.98,1.06) 0.87 (0.82,0.93)
Q4 1.67 (1.59,1.75) 1.51 (1.42,1.61) 1.16 (0.75,1.79) 0.97 (0.89,1.05) 1.24 (1.12,1.37) 1.00 (0.96,1.04) 0.81 (0.76,0.86)
Q5 1.96 (1.87,2.06) 1.77 (1.67,1.88) 2.17 (1.49,3.17) 0.87 (0.80,0.94) 1.24 (1.12,1.38) 1.05 (1.01,1.09) 0.66 (0.61,0.71)
Model 2b †† 1.19 (1.18,1.20) 1.16 (1.14,1.17) 1.23 (1.12,1.36) 0.97 (0.95,0.99) 1.06 (1.04,1.09) 1.00 (0.99,1.02) 0.91 (0.90,0.92)
Model 3b) ‡‡ p = 0.187 p = 0.029 p = 0.998 p = 0.151 p = 0.005 p = 0.542| p = 0.231
≥ 55 years        
Absolute difference
Model 1a §        
Q1 (reference) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Q2 1.8 (0.7,3.0) 3.1 (1.6,4.6) -0.4 (-1.5,0.8) -0.9 (-3.0,1.2) 0.6 (-1.3,2.5) -0.5 (-2.4,1.4) -2.3 (-4.4,-0.1)
Q3 5.4 (4.2,6.6) 4.7 (3.1,6.2) 0.0 (-1.1,1.2) 0.0 (-2.1,2.2) 1.7 (-0.3,3.7) -1.0 (-3.0,1.0) -6.1 (-8.3,-4.0)
Q4 9.5 (8.2,10.8) 8.0 (6.4,9.7) 2.7 (1.3,4.1) -2.4 (-4.6,-0.3) 2.0 (-0.1,4.0) -4.4 (-6.8,-2.1) -9.6 (-11.9,-7.4)
Q5 17.4 (15.9,18.9) 8.9 (7.1,10.6) 4.4 (2.8,6.0) -5.7 (-7.9,-3.5) 4.2 (2.0,6.3) -4.7 (-7.3,-2.2) -16.0 (-18.2,-13.8)
Model 2a 4.2 (3.9,4.5) 2.3 (1.9,2.7) 1.2 (0.8,1.5) -1.3 (-1.7,-0.8) 1.0 (0.5,1.4) -1.3 (-1.9,-0.8) -3.9 (-4.4,-3.4)
Mode13a p = 0.431 p = 0.027 p = 0.019 p = 0.025 p = 0.251 p ≤ 0.001 p = 0.534
Relative (PR)
Model 1b §§        
Q1 (reference) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Q2 1.15 (1.05,1.26) 1.13 (1.06,1.20) 0.92 (0.71,1.19) 0.95 (0.84,1.09) 1.01 (0.97,1.06) 1.00 (0.98,1.02) 0.94 (0.89,1.00)
Q3 1.46 (1.34,1.59) 1.20 (1.13,1.28) 1.01 (0.79,1.29) 1.01 (0.88,1.14) 1.04 (0.99,1.08) 1.00 (0.98,1.02) 0.83 (0.78,0.89)
Q4 1.81 (1.66,1.96) 1.35 (1.27,1.43) 1.57 (1.24,1.98) 0.86 (0.74,0.99) 1.04 (1.00,1.09) 0.97 (0.94,0.99) 0.74 (0.69,0.80)
Q5 2.48 (2.29,2.69) 1.39 (1.30,1.48) 1.95 (1.54,2.45) 0.66 (0.55,0.78) 1.09 (1.04,1.14) 0.97 (0.94,0.99) 0.56 (0.51,0.61)
Model 2b †† 1.27 (1.24,1.29) 1.09 (1.07,1.10) 1.22 (1.15,1.29) 0.92 (0.89,0.95) 1.02 (1.01,1.03) 0.99 (0.99,1.00) 0.88 (0.86,0.89)
Model 3b ‡‡ p = 0.088 p = 0.208 p = 0.639 p = 0.172 p = 0.064 p ≤ 0.001 p = 0.065
  1. PR: Prevalence ratio
  2. Q1 = most affluent; Q5 = most deprived
  3. § Model 1a: Percentage point (p.p) difference between IMD quintile and Q1 (adjusted for year and age). Linear regression model: year + age + Q2 + Q3 + Q4 + Q5
  4. Model 2a: p.p difference for unit increase in IMD (fitted as ordinal level variable ranging from 1 to 5). Linear regression model: year + age + IMD. p from the model served as test of linear trend (statistical significance of absolute difference in p.p when moving from one ordinal category to one immediately higher). p ≤ 0.05 if the 95% CIs do not include 0
  5. Model 3a: p shown for interaction term testing change in absolute inequality over time. Linear regression model: year + age + IMD + (year × IMD). (|IMD fitted as 4 indicator variables; otherwise fitted as ordinal)
  6. §§ Model 1b: PR between IMD quintile and Q1 (adjusted for year and age). Log-binomial regression model: year + age + Q2 + Q3 + Q4 + Q5
  7. †† Model 2b: PR for unit increase in IMD (fitted as an ordinal level variable). Log-binomial regression model: year + age + IMD. p served as test for linear trend (change in PR when moving from one ordinal category to one immediately higher). p ≤ 0.05 if the 95% CIs do not include 1
  8. ‡‡ Model 3b: p shown for interaction term testing change in relative inequality over time. Log-binomial regression model: year + age + IMD + (year × IMD). (|IMD fitted as 4 indicator variables; otherwise fitted as ordinal)
  9. ∫ Model fitted using Poisson regression due to log-binomial regression failing to converge