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Table 2 Absolute and relative inequalities in cardiovascular risk factors in men (95% CIs in parentheses) by age-group

From: Persistent socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular risk factors in England over 1994-2008: A time-trend analysis of repeated cross-sectional data

  Current smoking Obesity Diabetes High levels of physical activity High blood pressure (SBP ≥ 140 mmHg) Raised cholesterol (TC ≥ 5 mmol/l) ≥ 5 portions of fruit & vegetables
16-54        
Absolute difference
Model 1a §        
Q1 (reference) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Q2 2.8 (1.5,4.1) 0.4 (-0.6,1.5) 0.4 (-0.2,0.9) 1.1 (-1.4,3.7) 1.0 (-0.2,2.1) 0.3 (-2.3,2.9) -2.5 (-4.3,-0.7)
Q3 7.4 (6.0,8.7) 0.9 (-0.1,2.0) 0.3 (-0.3,0.8) 0.1 (-2.4,2.6) 1.4 (0.2,2.7) 0.5 (-2.1,3.0) -3.1 (-4.9,-1.3)
Q4 12.8 (11.4,14.2) 3.1 (2.0,4.2) 0.5 (0.0,1.1) -0.5 (-3.0,2.0) 0.9 (-0.3,2.2) -0.5 (-3.1,2.1) -2.8 (-4.7,-1.0)
Q5 20.2 (18.7,21.6) 1.9 (0.8,3.0) 1.5 (0.8,2.1) -3.9 (-6.3,-1.4) 2.2 (0.9,3.5) 0.8 (-1.9,3.5) -5.9 (-7.8,-4.0)
Model 2a 5.0 (4.7,5.3) 0.7 (0.4,0.9) 0.3 (0.1,0.5) -0.9 (-1.5,-0.3) 0.4 (0.2,0.7) 0.1 (-0.5,0.7) -1.2 (-1.6,-0.8)
Model 3a p = 0.249 p = 0.555 p = 0.036 p = 0.340 p = 0.490 p = 0.709| p = 0.709
Relative (PR)
Model 1b §§        
Q1 (reference) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Q2 1.12 (1.06,1.18) 1.03 (0.97,1.10) 1.31 (0.90,1.92) 1.03 (0.95,1.12) 1.06 (0.98,1.15) 0.97 (0.94,1.00) 0.90 (0.84,0.97)
Q3 1.31 (1.25,1.38) 1.06 (1.00,1.13) 1.22 (0.83,1.80) 1.01 (0.93,1.09) 1.09 (1.01,1.18) 0.98 (0.95,1.01) 0.87 (0.81,0.94)
Q4 1.54 (1.47,1.61) 1.20 (1.13,1.28) 1.44 (0.98,2.10) 0.99 (0.91,1.07) 1.06 (0.98,1.15) 0.96 (0.93,0.99) 0.89 (0.82,0.96)
Q5 1.84 (1.76,1.93) 1.12 (1.05,1.20) 2.19 (1.54,3.13) 0.89 (0.81,0.96) 1.16 (1.07,1.26) 0.98 (0.95,1.01) 0.76 (0.70,0.83)
Model 2b †† 1.17 (1.16,1.18) 1.04 (1.03,1.05) 1.19 (1.09,1.30) 0.97 (0.96,0.99) 1.03 (1.01,1.05) 1.00 (0.99,1.00) 0.95 (0.93,0.96)
Model 3b ‡‡ p = 0.410 p = 0.124 p = 0.214 p = 0.680 p = 0.756 p = 0.737| p = 0.781
≥ 55 years        
Absolute difference
Model 1a §        
Q1 (reference) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Q2 3.0 (1.8,4.1) 3.3 (1.8,4.9) -0.7 (-2.4,0.9) 0.2 (-2.2,2.6) -0.9 (-3.0,1.2) 0.4 (-2.4,3.1) 0.0 (-2.3,2.3)
Q3 6.5 (5.3,7.8) 3.9 (2.3,5.5) 0.3 (-1.4,2.0) 0.1 (-2.3,2.5) 0.1 (-2.0,2.3) -2.6 (-5.5,0.3) -4.1 (-6.5,-1.8)
Q4 11.5 (10.1,12.9) 5.6 (3.9,7.3) 1.0 (-0.9,2.9) -1.1 (-3.6,1.4) 1.8 (-0.5,4.0) -6.5 (-9.6,-3.4) -9.0 (-11.4,-6.7)
Q5 19.0 (17.5,20.5) 6.6 (4.8,8.3) 4.1 (1.9,6.3) -6.2 (-8.6,-3.8) 4.0 (1.6,6.4) -5.6 (-8.8,-2.3) -13.1 (-15.5,-10.7)
Model 2a 4.6 (4.3,4.9) 1.6 (1.2,2.0) 1.0 (0.5,1.4) -1.3 (-1.9,-0.8) 1.0 (0.5,1.5) -1.8 (-2.5,-1.1) -3.5 (-4.0,-3.0)
Model 3a p = 0.716 p = 0.044 p = 0.080 p = 0.229 p = 0.294 p = 0.004 p = 0.153
Relative (PR)
Model 1b §§        
Q1 (reference) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Q2 1.29 (1.17,1.42) 1.16 (1.09,1.25) 0.91 (0.73,1.14) 1.01 (0.89,1.15) 0.98 (0.94,1.03) 1.00 (0.97,1.03) 1.00 (0.93,1.07)
Q3 1.62 (1.48,1.78) 1.19 (1.11,1.28) 1.04 (0.84,1.28) 1.00 (0.88,1.14) 1.00 (0.96,1.05) 0.98 (0.95,1.02) 0.88 (0.81,0.94)
Q4 2.10 (1.92,2.30) 1.27 (1.19,1.37) 1.13 (0.90,1.41) 0.94 (0.81,1.08) 1.04 (0.99,1.09) 0.94 (0.90,0.98) 0.73 (0.67,0.79)
Q5 2.81 (2.58,3.06) 1.32 (1.23,1.42) 1.52 (1.23,1.88) 0.65 (0.55,0.78) 1.09 (1.04,1.14) 0.95 (0.92,0.99) 0.60 (0.55,0.67)
Model 2b †† 1.30 (1.27,1.32) 1.07 (1.05,1.08) 1.12 (1.06,1.18) 0.92 (0.89,0.96) 1.02 (1.01,1.03) 0.98 (0.98,0.99) 0.88 (0.87,0.90)
Model 3b ‡‡ p = 0.016 p = 0.519 p = 0.394 p = 0.533 p = 0.562 p ≤ 0.001 p = 0.032
  1. PR: Prevalence ratio
  2. Q1 = most affluent; Q5 = most deprived
  3. § Model 1a: Percentage point (p.p) difference between IMD quintile and Q1 (adjusted for year and age). Linear regression model: year + age + Q2 + Q3 + Q4 + Q5
  4. Model 2a: p.p difference for unit increase in IMD (fitted as ordinal level variable ranging from 1 to 5). Linear regression model: year + age + IMD. p from the model served as test of linear trend (statistical significance of absolute difference in p.p when moving from one ordinal category to one immediately higher). p ≤ 0.05 if the 95% CIs do not include 0
  5. Model 3a: p shown for interaction term testing change in absolute inequality over time. Linear regression model: year + age + IMD + (year × IMD). (|IMD fitted as 4 indicator variables; otherwise fitted as ordinal)
  6. §§ Model 1b: PR between IMD quintile and Q1 (adjusted for year and age). Log-binomial regression model: year + age + Q2 + Q3 + Q4 + Q5
  7. †† Model 2b: PR for unit increase in IMD (fitted as an ordinal level variable). Log-binomial regression model: year + age + IMD. p served as test for linear trend (change in PR when moving from one ordinal category to one immediately higher). p ≤ 0.05 if the 95% CIs do not include 1
  8. ‡‡ Model 3b: p shown for interaction term testing change in relative inequality over time. Log-binomial regression model: year + age + IMD + (year × IMD). (|IMD fitted as 4 indicator variables; otherwise fitted as ordinal)