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Table 2 Demographic and baseline pulmonary function among tea workers engaged in different processes

From: Pulmonary function, respiratory symptoms, and dust exposures among workers engaged in early manufacturing processes of tea: a cohort study

  Withering
(N = 13)
Withering+Panning
(N = 35)
Withering+Panning+Ball-Rolling
(N = 19)
Ball-Rolling
(N = 22)
p*
Age (year)* (mean ± SD) 43.7 ± 13.5 43.3 ± 9.6 38.8 ± 9.9 35.7 ± 7.9 0.02
Height (cm) (mean ± SD) 166.8 ± 5.9 166.1 ± 6.5 168.2 ± 6.4 169.9 ± 5.9 0.15
Weight (kg) (mean ± SD) 68.6 ± 11.1 65.2 ± 7.2 68.3 ± 7.9 68.1 ± 7.5 0.39
Education level      0.26
   Elementary 4 (30.8%) 8 (22.9%) 4 (21.1%) 1 (4.5%)  
   Junior high 2 (15.4%) 11 (31.4%) 4 (21.1%) 10 (45.5%)  
   Senior high 7 (53.8%) 16 (45.7%) 10 (52.6%) 11 (50.0%)  
   University 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (5.2%) 0 (0.0%)  
Race      0.59
   Han 11 (84.6%) 31 (88.6%) 19 (100.0%) 20 (90.9%)  
   Aboriginal 2 (15.4%) 3 (8.6%) 0 (0.0%) 2 (9.1%)  
   Hakka 0 (0.0%) 1 (2.8%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%)  
Smoking      0.08
   Never 8 (61.5%) 10 (28.6%) 6 (31.6%) 6 (27.3%)  
   Ex-smoker 2 (15.4%) 10 (28.6%) 3 (15.8%) 1 (4.5%)  
   Current 3 (23.1%) 15 (42.8%) 10 (52.6%) 15 (68.2%)  
Tea-drinking      0.93
   Never 0 (0.0%) 1 (2.9%) 1 (5.3%) 1 (4.5%)  
   Occasional 3 (23.1%) 7 (20.0%) 5 (26.3%) 7 (31.8%)  
   Habitual 10 (76.9%) 27 (77.1%) 13 (68.4%) 14 (63.7%)  
Baseline pulmonary function      
   FVC (L) (mean ± SD) 3.81 ± 0.57 3.89 ± 0.61 4.23 ± 0.75 4.24 ± 0.69 0.08
   FVC (%pred) (mean ± SD) 87.72 ± 8.10 88.59 ± 10.57 90.91 ± 10.96 88.59 ± 11.12 0.82
   FEV1 (L) (mean ± SD) 3.49 ± 0.47 3.57 ± 0.57 3.84 ± 0.75 3.69 ± 0.65 0.34
   FEV1(%pred) (mean ± SD) 98.25 ± 9.80 98.38 ± 12.64 99.53 ± 13.51 92.63 ± 12.34 0.26
   FEV1/FVC (mean ± SD) 91.98 ± 2.05 91.74 ± 4.60 90.79 ± 4.57 86.94 ± 4.98 < 0.01
   MMF (L/S) (mean ± SD) 4.97 ± 0.79 4.85 ± 1.19 5.28 ± 1.44 4.63 ± 1.47 0.44
   MMF (%pred) (mean ± SD) 133.42 ± 20.0 125.79 ± 3 0.9 128.21 ± 30.5 108.32 ± 30.7 0.05
  1. *p value for ANOVA, chi-square test, Fisher's exact test
  2. FVC forced vital capacity, FEV1 1-second forced expiratory volume, MMF maximal mid-expiratory flow rate, pred = predicted value