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Table 2 Demographic and baseline pulmonary function among tea workers engaged in different processes

From: Pulmonary function, respiratory symptoms, and dust exposures among workers engaged in early manufacturing processes of tea: a cohort study

 

Withering

(N = 13)

Withering+Panning

(N = 35)

Withering+Panning+Ball-Rolling

(N = 19)

Ball-Rolling

(N = 22)

p*

Age (year)* (mean ± SD)

43.7 ± 13.5

43.3 ± 9.6

38.8 ± 9.9

35.7 ± 7.9

0.02

Height (cm) (mean ± SD)

166.8 ± 5.9

166.1 ± 6.5

168.2 ± 6.4

169.9 ± 5.9

0.15

Weight (kg) (mean ± SD)

68.6 ± 11.1

65.2 ± 7.2

68.3 ± 7.9

68.1 ± 7.5

0.39

Education level

    

0.26

   Elementary

4 (30.8%)

8 (22.9%)

4 (21.1%)

1 (4.5%)

 

   Junior high

2 (15.4%)

11 (31.4%)

4 (21.1%)

10 (45.5%)

 

   Senior high

7 (53.8%)

16 (45.7%)

10 (52.6%)

11 (50.0%)

 

   University

0 (0.0%)

0 (0.0%)

1 (5.2%)

0 (0.0%)

 

Race

    

0.59

   Han

11 (84.6%)

31 (88.6%)

19 (100.0%)

20 (90.9%)

 

   Aboriginal

2 (15.4%)

3 (8.6%)

0 (0.0%)

2 (9.1%)

 

   Hakka

0 (0.0%)

1 (2.8%)

0 (0.0%)

0 (0.0%)

 

Smoking

    

0.08

   Never

8 (61.5%)

10 (28.6%)

6 (31.6%)

6 (27.3%)

 

   Ex-smoker

2 (15.4%)

10 (28.6%)

3 (15.8%)

1 (4.5%)

 

   Current

3 (23.1%)

15 (42.8%)

10 (52.6%)

15 (68.2%)

 

Tea-drinking

    

0.93

   Never

0 (0.0%)

1 (2.9%)

1 (5.3%)

1 (4.5%)

 

   Occasional

3 (23.1%)

7 (20.0%)

5 (26.3%)

7 (31.8%)

 

   Habitual

10 (76.9%)

27 (77.1%)

13 (68.4%)

14 (63.7%)

 

Baseline pulmonary function

     

   FVC (L) (mean ± SD)

3.81 ± 0.57

3.89 ± 0.61

4.23 ± 0.75

4.24 ± 0.69

0.08

   FVC (%pred) (mean ± SD)

87.72 ± 8.10

88.59 ± 10.57

90.91 ± 10.96

88.59 ± 11.12

0.82

   FEV1 (L) (mean ± SD)

3.49 ± 0.47

3.57 ± 0.57

3.84 ± 0.75

3.69 ± 0.65

0.34

   FEV1(%pred) (mean ± SD)

98.25 ± 9.80

98.38 ± 12.64

99.53 ± 13.51

92.63 ± 12.34

0.26

   FEV1/FVC (mean ± SD)

91.98 ± 2.05

91.74 ± 4.60

90.79 ± 4.57

86.94 ± 4.98

< 0.01

   MMF (L/S) (mean ± SD)

4.97 ± 0.79

4.85 ± 1.19

5.28 ± 1.44

4.63 ± 1.47

0.44

   MMF (%pred) (mean ± SD)

133.42 ± 20.0

125.79 ± 3 0.9

128.21 ± 30.5

108.32 ± 30.7

0.05

  1. *p value for ANOVA, chi-square test, Fisher's exact test
  2. FVC forced vital capacity, FEV1 1-second forced expiratory volume, MMF maximal mid-expiratory flow rate, pred = predicted value