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Table 4 Associations between ERI and social and family-related characteristics

From: Applying the effort-reward imbalance model to household and family work: a population-based study of German mothers

  Ratio Effort Reward Overcommitment
Mothers' age (yr) M SD M SD M SD M SD
< 29 0.73 0.39 21.06 7.56 43.15 7.93 9.57 2.56
30-39 0.77 0.44 21.60 7.41 42.26 8.19 9.71 2.80
40-49 0.74 0.46 20.32 8.09 41.95 8.34 9.08 2.80
50-60 0.72 0.54 18.77 9.22 41.83 9.43 8.83 2.90
  F = 1.92 p = .383 F = 9.41 p <.001 F = 1.84 p = .138 F = 13.55 p < .001
School education         
Secondary general 0.77 0.49 20.69 8.21 41.01 8.60 9.44 2.94
Intermediate secondary 0.73 0.42 20.64 7.76 42.52 8.14 9.28 2.75
Upper secondary 0.75 0.45 21.53 7.47 43.09 8.28 9.50 2.69
  F = 2.71 p = .067 F = 3.73 p = .021 F = 16.79 p < .001 F = 1.65 p = .192
Per capita income         
≤ 925 0.79 0.47 21.23 7.98 40.99 8.68 9.60 2.86
926-1542 0.74 0.42 20.94 7.57 42.22 8.00 9.36 2.71
≥ 1543 0.69 0.41 20.56 7.99 44.24 7.32 9.16 2.83
  F = 9.88 p < .001 F = 1.33 p = .264 F = 28.86 p < .001 F = 4.68 p = .009
Number of children         
1 0.71 0.44 20.08 7.88 42.86 8.28 9.20 2.82
2 0.77 0.46 21.30 7.70 41.93 8.27 9.50 2.72
>2 0.80 0.43 21.80 7.85 41.27 8.48 9.59 2.99
  F = 8.58 p < .001 F = 11.44 p < .001 F = 7.07 p < .001 F = 4.75 p = .009
Age of youngest child (yr)         
0-2 0.73 0.37 21.70 6.75 43.54 7.36 9.52 2.62
3-5 0.80 0.45 22.47 7.60 42.43 7.90 9.98 2.76
6-11 0.76 0.41 21.42 7.66 42.12 8.04 9.49 2.81
12-15 0.75 0.52 19.83 8.45 41.28 8.98 9.10 2.90
16-18 0.68 0.46 18.36 7.83 42.13 8.71 8.79 2.73
  F = 4.48 p < .001 F = 22.87 p < .001 F = 5.54 p < .001 F = 13.32 p < .001
Single motherhood 1         
Yes 0.84 0.53 21.81 8.47 29.50 6.67 9.77 2.95
No 0.73 0.44 20.73 7.68 31.28 5.72 9.32 2.77
  F = 24.87 p < .001 F = 8.31 p=.004 F = 38.70 p < .001 F = 11.37 p = .001
Employment status         
Housewife 0.71 0.44 19.74 7.54 42.10 7.91 9.12 2.78
Unemployed 0.76 0.41 20.59 7.68 40.11 8.36 9.73 2.87
Work ≤ 19 hours/week 0.76 0.45 20.56 7.86 41.18 8.56 9.37 2.84
Work 20-37 hours/week 0.76 0.43 21.38 7.72 42.34 8.17 9.43 2.78
Work ≥ 38 hours/week 0.72 0.45 20.92 8.21 43.88 7.98 9.41 2.83
  F = 2.04 p = .058 F = 3.09 p = .005 F = 7.58 p < .001 F = 1.01 p = .416
Division of housework 2         
Mainly woman 0.79 0.44 21.60 7.64 41.25 8.06 9.56 2.77
Woman and man alike 0.57 0.31 18.13 7.21 46.39 6.50 8.63 2.61
  F = 133.73 p < .001 F = 99.59 p < .001 F = 208.01 p < .001 F = 54.10 p < .001
Spillover work to family 3         
No spillover 0.64 0.40 18.36 7.41 43.51 7.98 8.74 2.74
Moderate 0.76 0.36 21.60 6.77 42.91 7.58 9.55 2.58
Marked 1.13 0.53 28.00 6.43 37.70 8.92 11.32 2.49
  F = 272.85 p < .001 F = 362.55 p < .001 F = 100.41 p < .001 F = 186.70 p < .001
  1. Notes: To give a better understanding different to Table 2 and 3 reward items are coded in such a way that low values indicate low reward, while high values mean high reward. 1 The subscale 'recognition from the spouse' is not applicable to single mothers. Thus here, the scale 'reward' only comprises the remaining three subscales 'affection from the child', 'societal esteem' and 'intrinsic value'. The comparative analysis with partnered mothers has also been carried out with the reduced reward scale. 2Categories 'mainly man' and 'other persons' have been neglected due to small number of valid cases (see Table 1), single mothers were excluded from calculation. 3Women not working were assigned to the group 'no spillover'. M = Mean Value, SD = Standard deviation.
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