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Table 3 Frequency distribution of ERI and Overcommitment items

From: Applying the effort-reward imbalance model to household and family work: a population-based study of German mothers

   M SD %
  Effort-Reward Imbalance 0.75 0.45 19.3
  Effort    
Effort1 Frequently there is great time pressure 2.77 1.09 22.8
Effort2 I am frequently interrupted and disturbed 2.62 1.05 17.2
Effort3 Often I feel as never being off duty 2.77 1.34 33.0
Effort4 I would need more hours in the day to accomplish all 2.42 1.30 22.1
Effort5 My family work has become larger and larger 2.55 1.20 22.0
Effort6 I have to do a 'thousand things' all at the same time 2.90 1.14 30.7
Effort7 I'm overwhelmed by the large number of responsibilities 2.32 1.33 22.0
Effort8 I hardly get a moment's rest during the day 2.57 1.27 25.4
  Reward: Intrinsic value    
Reward1 I (don't) feel that family work are worth the effort 1.64 1.04 7.4
Reward2 I often question the meaning of household/family work 2.31 1.24 16.9
Reward3 The work I do for my family (don't) provide a deeper meaning to my life 1.61 0.90 4.5
  Reward: Societal esteem    
Reward4 Roles of housewife and mother are poorly recognized 2.71 1.19 25.5
Reward5 Nowadays, a person is regarded disapprovingly if he/she is "only" involved in household and family work 2.32 1.21 18.2
Reward6 The fact that family work is unpaid seems unjust to me 2.72 1.30 28.5
  Reward: Recognition from the partner    
Reward7 I (don't) obtain appropriate recognition from my partner 2.10 1.28 16.6
Reward8 Often my partner does not notice my work 2.31 1.32 21.2
Reward9 My partner (don't) often thanks me for my work at home 2.35 1.20 17.4
  Reward: affection from the child(ren)    
Reward10 I usually feel (not) the appreciation that I would wish for 1.95 1.13 10.5
Reward11 I (don't) receive a great deal in return from my children 1.85 1.20 12.1
  Overcommitment 9.40 2.80 23.8
Over1 I easily run into time pressures 2.62 0.81 58.0
Over2 Already in the morning I begin to worry about family work 2.64 0.94 58.3
Over3 I constantly think about my responsibilities at home 2.27 0.89 38.7
Over4 If I postpone something, I have trouble sleeping at night 1.88 0.84 22.3
  1. Notes: M = Mean value, SD = Standard deviation, %= Percentage of mothers reporting ERI (ratio > 1), high overcommitment (categories 3 and 4 of response format, sumscore ≥ 12) and high distress due to high effort and low reward (categories 4 and 5 of response format).
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