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Table 1 Socio-demographic and family-related characteristics of the study sample (n = 3129)

From: Applying the effort-reward imbalance model to household and family work: a population-based study of German mothers

  n %
Mothers' age (yr)
17-19 4 0.1
20-29 291 9.4
30-39 1328 42.8
40-49 1339 43.2
50-60 137 4.4
Missing 30  
School education
Secondary general school 1008 32.6
Intermediate secondary school 1256 40.6
Upper secondary school 830 26.8
Missing 35  
Per capita income 1 (€)
≤ 925 959 35.5
926-1542 1212 44.9
≥ 1543 530 19.6
Missing 427  
Number of children
1 1187 40.5
2 1277 43.5
>2 470 16.0
Missing 196  
Age of youngest child (yr)
0-2 479 15.5
3-5 500 16.2
6-11 1008 32.6
12-15 687 22.2
16-18 420 13.6
Missing 35  
Marital status
Married 2214 71.9
Married but separated 80 2.6
Single 400 13.0
Divorced 362 11.8
Widowed 24 0.8
Missing 49  
Single motherhood
Yes 506 16.8
No 2511 83.2
Missing 112  
Employment status
Housewife 439 14.3
Maternity leave 127 4.1
Unemployed 97 3.2
Early retirement 28 0.9
Work ≤ 19 hours/week 669 21.8
Work half time (20-37 hours/week) 1163 37.8
Work full time (≥ 38 hours/week) 550 17.9
Missing 56  
Division of housework 2
Mainly woman 1865 74.4
Woman and man alike 598 23.9
Mainly man 24 1.0
Other persons (as grandparents) 19 0.8
Missing 4  
Spillover from work to family
No spillover 851 37.3
Moderate 935 41.0
Marked 494 21.7
Not employed 733  
Missing 84  
Effort-Reward Imbalance
Ratio > 1 598 19.3
Ratio ≤ 1 2499 80.7
Missing 32  
Overcommitment
Score > 11 737 23.8
Score ≤ 11 2358 76.2
Missing 34  
  1. Notes: 1 For calculation of per capita income information on household size and number of children were required resulting in higher frequency of missing data, 2 Single mothers were excluded from calculation.
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