Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 3 Covariate adjusted hazard ratios for high distress (top panel) and hazard ratio of the covariates for the complete model (lower panel) for 18-year follow-up diabetes incidence

From: Higher levels of psychological distress are associated with a higher risk of incident diabetes during 18 year follow-up: results from the British household panel survey

  HR 95% CI p
Block 1: Sociodemographic factors    
 High distress 1.33 1.10-1.61 0.003
Block 2: Health    
 High distress 1.10 0.90-1.34 0.342
Block 3: Lifestyle    
 High distress 1.10 0.91-1.34 0.333
Covariates [complete model]    
Sociodemographic factors    
 Age 1.03 1.02-1.04 <0.001
 Female sex [ref male] 0.68 0.56-0.83 <0.001
 Marital status 1.18 0.95-1.46 0.126
 Lower education [ref medium] 1.21 0.95-1.54 0.115
 Higher education [ref medium] 0.82 0.63-1.06 0.121
 Annual hh income <15,000 [ref 15,000 - <35,000] 1.00 0.80-1.24 0.985
 Annual hh income ≥ 35,000 [ref 15,000 - <35,000] 0.67 0.44-1.02 0.064
Health    
 More energetic [ref same energy] 0.79 0.63-1.00 0.59
 Less energetic [ref same energy] 1.54 1.18-2.02 0.002
 Health status [ref ‘no’] 2.81 1.55-5.11 0.001
 Health problems One/some [ref ‘none’] 1.43 0.77-2.63 0.255
Lifestyle    
 Inactive/sedentary [ref moderately active] 1.06 0.82-1.38 0.655
 Active [ref moderately active] 0.87 0.69-1.10 0.231
 Smoking 1.01 0.82-1.25 0.915
  1. Block 1: adjusted for age, female sex, marital status, education level, and annual household income.
  2. Block 2: adjusted for block 1 + energy, health status, and health problems.
  3. Block 3: adjusted for block 2 + activity in 1996, and smoking.