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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants without diabetes, stratified by psychological distress

From: Higher levels of psychological distress are associated with a higher risk of incident diabetes during 18 year follow-up: results from the British household panel survey

    psychological distress   
   Total High [4,021] Low [5,493] Test-value1 p-value
  N %/m n/SD %/m n/SD %/m n/SD   
Sociodemographic factors  
Age [years] 9,514 43.8 18.1 44.5 18.0 43.4 18.2 8.81 0.003
Sex [female] 9,514 54% 5,100 60% 2,417 49% 2,683 118.5 <0.001
Marital status [married] 9,502 59% 5,639 58% 2331 60% 3,308 5.00 0.025
Professional education 9,497        44.5 <0.001
 Lower education   33% 3,101 36% 1,460 29% 1,641   
 Medium education   33% 3,119 32% 1,267 34% 1,852   
 Higher education   35% 3,277 32% 1,289 36% 1,998   
Race/ethnicity [non-white] 9,503 4% 352 4% 171 3% 181 5.94 0.015
Annual household income 9,514        73.9 <0.001
 <15,000 £   44% 4,209 49% 1,979 41% 2,230   
 15,000-<35,000 £   46% 4,358 42% 1,705 48% 2,653   
 ≥35,000 £   10% 947 8% 337 11% 610   
Health          
Energy 9,455        393.2 <0.001
 More energetic   32% 2,987 25% 996 36% 1,991   
 About the same   54% 5,124 53% 2,109 55% 3,015   
 Less energetic   14% 1,344 22% 878 9% 446   
Health status 9,508 13% 1,200 19% 777 8% 423 284.1 <0.001
One/some health problems of which: 9,486 52% 4,960 59% 2,375 47% 2585 134.1 <0.001
  Heart/blood pressure   11% 1,076 13% 538 10% 538 29.7 <0.001
  Breathing problems, asthma, bronchitis   10% 963 13% 507 8% 456 47.3 <0.001
  Skin conditions/allergies   11% 1,001 12% 488 9% 513 19.3 <0.001
  Stomach/liver/kidneys   6% 524 7% 295 4% 229 44.71 <0.001
  Problems with arms, legs, etc.   23% 2,138 27% 1,102 19% 1,036 97.2 <0.001
  Difficulty in seeing   7% 656 9% 348 6% 308 33.54 <0.001
  Difficulty in hearing   7% 698 8% 313 7% 385 2.04 0.153
  Migraine or frequent headaches   8% 760 10% 414 6% 346 50.4 <0.001
Anxiety, depression, psych. problems 9,486 5% 473 10% 390 2% 83 329.3 <0.001
Lifestyle          
Leisure time activity 2 6,906        37.0 <0.001
 Active   52% 3,609 50% 1,441 54% 2,168   
 Moderately active   20% 1,391 19% 548 21% 843   
 Inactive/sedentary   28% 1,906 31% 912 25% 994   
Smoking 9,506 30% 2,856 33% 1,331 28% 1,525 31.5 <0.001
BMI [kg/m2] 2 4,933 26.4 4.7 26.3 4.9 26.4 4.6 0.019 0.889
BMI categories 2 4,933         
 Underweight < 18.5   1% 69 2% 31 1% 38 7.28 0.064
 Normal weight 18.5 - 24.9   42% 2,077 44% 898 41% 1,179   
 Overweight 25.0 - 29.9   38% 1,868 36% 731 39% 1,137   
 Obese ≥ 30.0   19% 919 19% 385 19% 534   
  1. 1Test value Pearson χ 2 for categorical variables and F-value for continuous scores.
  2. 2 Activity level was measured in wave 6, and BMI was measured in wave 13.