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Table 5 Nutritional and health outcomes associated with fruit and vegetable subsidy programs

From: Food subsidy programs and the health and nutritional status of disadvantaged families in high income countries: a systematic review

First Author, Year Intervention, Participants Nutritional outcomes Health outcomes
Burr 2007[37] Dietary intake  
  Net % consuming more fruit  
Free home-delivered orange juice using vouchers(V) nutritional advice promoting fruit and fruit juice (A) or standard care during prenatal care period (C) Mean V A C   
  Apples 2.2 −13.2 −2.7   
  Oranges −2.2 −21.1 −11.8   
  Bananas −17.4 −7.9 −29.7   
  Fruit juice 34.8* −7.9 −24.3   
  *Voucher group net % significantly greater than advice or control (p<0.05)  
Pregnant women Biomarkers      
  Mean (SD)      
  β-carotene change, ng/ml
  V A C p   
  n=39 n=37 n=42    
  35.6(77.2)   −20.2(43.3) <0.0001   
   2.7(65.5) −20.2(43.3) 0.435   
Herman 2006 & 2008[32, 40] Dietary intake      
Standard WIC program plus $10 voucher weekly for F&V from local supermarket (SM) or farmer′s market (FM) Mean SM FM C p  
  F&V intake,      
  serves/4186kJ/day      
  End of intervention 4.1 3.9 3.0 F=9.75, p<0.001  
Post-partum women >18yo- all WIC participants 6 mths post-intervention 4.0 4.0 3.1 F=6.66, p=0.001  
  Vegetable intake, serves/4186kJ/day  
  End of intervention 2.3 2.1 1.5 F=11.0, p<0.001  
  6 mths post-intervention Data not shown F=−0.59, p=0.02  
  Fruit intake  
  Data not shown, no significant differences between SM, FM and control  
Kennedy 2009[41] Dietary intake      Anthropometric and cardiovascular outcomes
  Change in intake at six months      Change at six months
Free fruit and vegetables $10/week with recipes from mobile store at community centre with monthly nutrition/cooking sessions and anthropometric assessment Mean (SD) I C p   Mean (SD) I C p
  Energy, kcal/day −456 (1032) −636 (1326) 0.48   Weight, kg −2.0 (3.2) 1.1 (2.0) <0.001
  Fiber, g/day 1.7 (5.7) −4.3 (19.7) 0.03      
African-American women Fruit, serves/day 1.0 (1.7) 0 (1.2) 0.02      
  Veg, serves/day 0.9 (1.2) −0.2 (1.8) 0.002   BMI, kg/m [2] −0.7 (1.2) 0.4 (0.8) 0.001
       Waist size, cm −0.5 (5.3) 1.9 (3.7) 0.12
       Syst BP, mmHg −2.3 (13.0) −1.4 (12.3) 0.14
       Dias BP, mmHg 0.8 (8.1) 0.1 (9.3) 0.68
       Self-rated health
       General health and quality of life were rated across multiple domains. Trends generally favoured intervention group, but only self-esteem (p=0.03) and emotional role (p=0.04) improved significantly