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Table 2 Adjusted associations between maternal ethnic background and maternal-reported Total Problems

From: Differences in problem behaviour among ethnic minority and majority preschoolers in the Netherlands and the role of family functioning and parenting factors as mediators: the Generation R Study

Maternal ethnic background Model 1 Model 2 % changea Model 3 % changeb Model 4 % changeb Model 5 % changeb Model 6 % changeb Model 7 % changeb Model 8 % changeb
Dutch N=3105 1.0 1.0   1.0     1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
European other N=397 2.4 2.2   2.0   2.0   2.1   1.9   2.0   1.5  
(1.6; 3.7) (1.5: 3.5) −14.4%* (1.3; 3.0) −22.2%* (1.3; 3.1) −22.2%* (1.4; 3.3) −10.1%* (1.2; 3.0) −26.4%* (1.3; 3.1) −19.5%* (1.0; 2.4) −55.5%*
Antillean N=78 4.2 2.6   2.5   2.6   2.6   2.5   2.3   2.1  
(2.1; 8.4) (1.2; 5.5) −49.1%* (1.2; 5.2) −10.1% (1.2; 5.6) +0.2% (1.2; 5.4) −3.3% (1.1; 5.4) −9.1% (1.1; 4.9) −19.5% (1.0; 4.7) −29.4%
Cape Verdean N=94 5.1 2.9   2.4   2.7   2.5   3.0   2.6   2.3  
(2.8; 9.4) (1.5: 5.6) −54.4%* (1.2; 4.8) −23.3% (1.4; 5.3) −5.8% (1.3; 4.9) −20.3%* (1.5; 5.9) +4.7% (1.3; 5.1) −15.1% (1.1; 4.6) −30.3%
Moroccan N=155 3.8 2.4   1.9   2.0   2.2   2.3   2.4   1.8  
(2.2; 6.5) (1.3; 4.4) −49.2%* (1.0; 3.4) −39.8%* (1.1; 3.8) −22.0%* (1.2; 3.9) −18.3%* (1.2; 4.2) −9.9% (1.3; 4.3) −4.1% (1.0; 3.4) −43.8%*
Surinamese Creole N=78 1.9 1.2   1.2   1.3   1.1   1.3   1.1   1.1  
(0.8; 4.9) (0.5; 3.2) −77.2% (0.4; 3.2) +8.8% (0.5; 3.6) +60.2% (0.4; 3.0) −38.9% (0.5; 3.4) +24.3 (0.4; 2.9) −67.7% (0.4; 2.9) −73.9%
Surinamese Hindu N=85 6.8 4.7   4.2   3.9   3.9   4.6   4.0   3.3  
(3.7; 12.3) (2.5; 8.8) −35.8%* (2.2: 8.0) −14.0% (2.0; 5.6) −19.7%* (2.1; 7.5) −20.5%* (2.4; 8.9) −2.5% (2.1; 7.6) −20.7%* (1.7; 6.6) −37.3%*
Turkish N=290 7.0 4.2   3.2   3.1   3.9   3.1   4.2   2.6  
(4.9; 10.1) (2.7; 6.6) −46.4%* (2.0; 5.0) −32.4%* (2.0; 4.9) −31.5%* (2.5; 6.1) −10.1%* (2.0; 4.9) −35.1%* (2.6; 6.5) −2.7% (1.6; 4.1) −51.3%*
  1. Table based on imputed dataset.
  2. Values are OR (95% CI) derived from logistic regression models modelling maternal ethnic background as the determinant and maternal-reported Total Problems as the outcome variable.
  3. Model 1: Basic model adjusted for child gestational age, birth weight, age, gender.
  4. Model 2: Model 1+ maternal age, maternal marital status, maternal educational level, parity and family income.
  5. Model 3: Model 2 + prenatal maternal psychopathology.
  6. Model 4: Model 2 + postnatal maternal psychopathology.
  7. Model 5: Model 2+ prenatal family functioning.
  8. Model 6: Model 2+ parenting stress.
  9. Model 7: Model 2 + paternal harsh parenting.
  10. Model 8: Fully adjusted model.
  11. a Change in odds ratio relative to model 1 for non-Dutch ethnic groups versus Dutch reference group (100 * [ORmodel 1+mediator– ORmodel 1] / [ORmodel 1 -1])).
  12. b Change in odds ratio relative to model 2 for non-Dutch ethnic groups versus Dutch reference group after individual adjustment (models 3–7) or full adjustment
  13. (model 8) for family functioning and parenting factors (100 * [ORmodel 2+mediator– ORmodel 2] / [ORmodel 2 -1])).
  14. * p <0.05 indicates a significant change in odds ratio after adding variable(s) to model 1 or model 2 calculated with a bootstrap analysis.