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Table 1 Characteristics of participants

From: Differences in problem behaviour among ethnic minority and majority preschoolers in the Netherlands and the role of family functioning and parenting factors as mediators: the Generation R Study

  N Dutch (ref) N=3105 European other N=397 Antillean N=78 Cape Verdean N=94 Moroccan N=155 Surinamese Creole N=78 Surinamese Hindu N=85 Turkish N=290 p-value
Child characteristics           
Sex (% boys) 4186 50.2 46.5 46.2 46.8 49.7 57.9 40.0 50.2 0.35
Age (months) 4282 36.5 (1.2) 36.6 (1.1) 37.1 (2.4) 36.9 (1.4) 37.2 (2.0) 36.8 (1.4) 36.9 (1.6) 37.2 (1.8) <0.001
Birth weight (grams) 4184 3511.2 (551.4) 3468.8 (539.0) 3196.0 (520.9) 3247.1 (563.0) 3483.7 (518.1) 3254.7 (559.5) 3067.7 (476.9) 3391.8 (519.5) <0.001
Gestational age at birth (%≤36 weeks) 4282 4.6 5.3 9.0 1.1 3.9 3.8 4.7 4.8 0.46
Socio-economic characteristics           
Age mother at intake (years) 4282 32.2 (4.0) 31.6 (4.3) 28.3 (5.4) 29.6 (5.3) 28.9 (5.1) 30.9 (5.9) 28.7 (5.4) 28.2 (5.3) <0.001
Educational level 4212          
High (%)   66.9 66.6 25.6 12.5 16.0 23.7 20.2 15.0 <0.001
Medium (%)   31.7 28.4 65.4 64.8 57.6 65.8 69.0 49.1  
Low (%)   1.4 5.0 9.0 22.7 26.4 10.5 10.7 35.9  
Marital status (% single) 4187 5.0 5.6 40.3 40.0 5.3 44.9 22.4 5.3 <0.001
Family income 3584          
>2000 (%)   85.6 77.1 27.9 16.9 18.7 34.5 37.1 21.3 <0.001
1200-2000 (%)   11.4 16.8 31.1 33.8 38.3 31.0 30.0 40.0  
<1200 (%)   3.0 5.5 41.0 49.4 43.0 34.5 32.9 38.7  
Parity (% nulli) 4167 60.3 62.0 67.5 42.9 40.5 55.8 56.5 46.6 <0.001
Family functioning and parenting characteristics           
Prenatal maternal psychopathology 1 3435 0.1 (0.2) 0.2 (0.2) 0.2 (0.5) 0.3 (0.7) 0.3 (0.5) 0.2 (0.3) 0.3 (0.4) 0.4 (0.6) <0.001
Postnatal maternal psychopathology 1 3732 0.1 (0.2) 0.1 (0.2) 0.2 (0.3) 0.2 (0.4) 0.2 (0.4) 0.2 (0.2) 0.2 (0.5) 0.3 (0.5) <0.001
Prenatal family functioning 1 3838 1.3 (0.6) 1.4 (0.7) 1.7 (0.8) 1.9 (0.4) 1.8 (0.8) 1.6 (0.8) 1.9 (0.7) 1.7 (0.8) <0.001
Parenting stress 1 3817 0.2 (0.3) 0.3 (0.4) 0.3 (0.3) 0.3 (0.5) 0.3 (0.4) 0.2(0.3) 0.3(0.4) 0.5(0.5) <0.001
Harsh parenting (above cut-off)           
Maternal report (%) 3543 14.6 19.3 30.4 22.7 24.7 19.0 27.0 16.8 <0.001
Paternal report (%) 4251 13.2 22.1 23.7 23.4 18.7 21.1 27.7 18.5 <0.001
  1. Values are percentages for categorical variables, means (sd) for continuous, normally distributed variables and medians (IQD) for non-normally distributed variables.
  2. 1 Median (IQD).