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Table 1 Methods and definitions (selected examples derived from Bartholomew, et al., 2011, chapter 6[1])

From: Methods for environmental change; an exploratory study

Method Definition
Methods at the Environmental Level (Bundling)
*Participatory Problem Solving [3] Diagnosing the problem, generating potential solutions, developing priorities, making an action plan, and obtaining feedback after implementing the plan.
*Advocacy and Lobbying [4] Arguing and mobilizing resources on behalf of a particular change; giving aid to a cause; active support for a cause or position.
Mobilizing Social Networks [5] Encouraging social networks to provide informational, emotional, appraisal, and instrumental support.
*Organizational Diagnosis and Feedback [6] Assessing of organizational structures and employees’ beliefs and attitudes, desired outcomes and readiness to take action, using surveys and other methods.
Community Development [7] A form of community organization, based on consensus, in which power is shared equally and members engage together in participatory problem solving.
*Social Action [7] A form of community organization, based in conflict, in which disenfranchised people wrest power from the official power.
*Forming Coalitions [8] Forming an alliance among individuals or organizations, during which they cooperate in joint action to reach a goal in their own self-interest.
Agenda Setting [9] Process of moving an issue to the political agenda for action; may make use of advocacy and media when initiated from outside government.
Methods at the Individual Level (Bundling)
*Persuasive Communication [10] Guiding individuals and environmental agents toward the adoption of an idea, attitude, or action by using arguments or other means.
*Modeling [11] Providing an appropriate model being reinforced for the desired action.
*Feedback [12] Giving information to individuals and environmental agents regarding the extent to which they are accomplishing learning or performance, or the extent to which performance is having an impact.
*Reinforcement/Punishment [12] Providing reinforcement: linking a behavior to any consequence that increases the behavior’s rate, frequency or probability.Providing punishment: linking a behavior to any consequence that decreases the behavior’s rate, frequency or probability.
*Consciousness Raising [13] Providing information, feedback, or confrontation about the causes, consequences, and alternatives for a problem or a problem behavior.
*Goal Setting [14] Prompting planning what the person will do, including a definition of goal-directed behaviors that result in the target behavior.
*Facilitation [15] Creating an environment that makes the action easier or reduces barriers to action.
*Information About Others’ Approval [16] Providing information about what others think about the person’s behavior and whether others will approve or disapprove of any proposed behavior change.
*Resistance to Social Pressure [17] Stimulating building skills for resistance to social pressure.
Guided Practice [11] Prompting individuals to rehearse and repeat the behavior various times, discuss the experience, and provide feedback.
Individual Level and Environmental Level Methods (At and From)*
Tailoring [18] Matching the intervention or components to previously measured characteristics of the participant.
Direct Experience [19] Encouraging a process whereby knowledge is created through the interpretation of experience.
Systems Change (Env.) [20] Interacting with the environment to change the elements and relationship among elements of a system at any level, especially through dialogue with stakeholders, action, and learning through feedback.
Coercion (Env.) [21] Attempting to control others against their will.
Technical Assistance (Env.) [22] Providing technical means to achieve desired behavior.
Sense-Making (Env.) [23] Leaders reinterpret and relabel processes in organization, create meaning through dialogue, and model and redirect change.
Team Building & Human Relations Training (Env.) [6] Grouping development activities based on the values of human potential, participation, and development.
Structural Redesign (Env.) [24] Change organizational elements such as formal statements of organizational philosophy, communication flow, reward systems, job descriptions, and lines of authority.
Increasing Stakeholder Influence (Env.) [25] Increase stakeholder power, legitimacy, and urgency, often by forming coalitions and using community development and social action to change an organization’s policies.
Reporting, Social Planning [26] Using information based on research to address issues.
Media Advocacy (Env.) [27] Expose environmental agents’ behaviors in the mass media to order to get them to improve health related conditions. A type of advocacy.
  1. *: Method is used in both parts of the study; definitions are only given once.