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Table 5 Percent male migrants who reported consistent condom use$ during sex in places of destination and places of origin by type of partner

From: Male migration and risky sexual behavior in rural India: is the place of origin critical for HIV prevention programs?

Consistent condom use in sex with Prakasam district Azamgarh district
  Sex worker Casual unpaid partner Any partner# Sex worker Casual unpaid partner Any partner#
  % (n/N) % (n/N) % (n/N) % (n/N) % (n/N) % (n/N)
Both returned and active migrants sample @ 158 349 367 154 293 327
At place of origin before first move 72.4 (42/58) 19.6 (43/220)* 28.9** (68/235) 36.4 (12/33) 17.2* (44/256) 19.1** (50/262)
At place of origin during migration 59.4* (41/69) 25.9 (45/174) 38.8** (76/196) 30.6* (11/36) 27.9 (53/190) 28.1** (57/203)
At place of origin in present visit 71.9 (41/57) 20.0 (38/190) 35.9** (71/198) 23.3** (7/30) 26.1 (36/138) 27.2** (40/147)
At places of destination during migration(R) 74.4 (99/133) 26.9 (50/186) 55.7 (123/221) 53.5 (69/129) 27.4 (23/84) 44.2 (80/181)
Returned migrants sample @ 77 176 182 84 142 159
At place of origin before first move 64.0 (16/25) 21.2 (24/113) 28.9** (35/121) 25.0** (4/16) 13.1** (16/122) 14.3** (18/126)
At places of origin during migration 67.7 (23/34) 27.0* (24/89) 40.4 (40/99) 23.8* (5/21) 25.0 (23/92) 24.8** (25/101)
At places of origin in present visit 76.7 (23/30) 19.8 (19/96) 38.0* (38/100) 14.3** (3/21) 24.2 (16/66) 25.4** (18/71)
At places of destination during migration(R) 71.2 (47/66) 22.7 (20/88) 51.8 (57/110) 54.1 (40/74) 31.6 (12/38) 46.9 (45/96)
Active migrants sample @ 81 173 185 70 151 168
At place of origin before first move 78.8 (26/33) 17.8* (19/107) 29.0** (33/114) 47.1 (8/17) 20.9 (28/134) 23.5** (32/136)
At place of origin during migration 51.4** (18/35) 24.7 (21/85) 37.1** (36/97) 40.0 (6/15) 30.6 (30/98) 31.4 (32/102)
At place of origin in present visit 66.7 (18/27) 20.2 (19/94) 33.7** (33/98) 44.4 (4/9) 27.8 (20/72) 29.0 (22/76)
At places of destination during migration(R) 77.6 (52/67) 30.6 (30/98) 59.5 (66/111) 52.7 (29/55) 23.9 (11/46) 41.2 (35/85)
  1. n - number used condoms consistently in sex; N - number who had sex with that specific partner within that place.
  2. @ - Total sample who had sex with the specific partner either in place of origin or place of destination.
  3. * p<0.05, ** p<0.01
  4. (R) - Reference Category for comparison between proportions.
  5. $ - Based on separate questions that asked about every time condom use in sex with different type of partners (sex worker or casual unpaid female partner) in places of origin and destination.
  6. # - Consistent condom use in sex either with sex worker or casual unpaid or both partners (as applicable) in places of origin and/or destination.
  7. Note: p-value refers to test for difference between proportions. Place of destination is used as the reference category to measure the differences in condom use behavior at place of origin at different times during the migration.