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Table 2 The effect of suboptimal breastfeeding on selected outcomes during infancy

From: Breastfeeding and the risk for diarrhea morbidity and mortality

   0-5 months* 0-11 months*
Outcome Reference Category Predominant Partial Not Partial Not
Diarrhea Incidence Exclusive 1.26 (0.81-1.95)[22] 1.68 (1.03-2.76)[22, 23, 28] 2.65 (1.72-4.07)[22, 23, 28]   
  Predominant   1.77 (0.82-3.83)[22, 26, 27] 2.08 (1.58-2.72)[22, 27]   
  Partial    1.71 (1.38-2.11)[22, 23, 27]   
Diarrhea Prevalence Exclusive 2.15 (1.81-2.55)[22, 30, 32, 34] 4.62 (2.37-9.00)[22, 30, 32] 4.90 (2.93-8.21)[22, 32, 34]   
  Predominant   1.46 (0.95-2.26)[22, 27, 30] 2.40 (1.31-4.43)[22, 27, 34]   
  Partial    2.05 (1.46-2.88)[22, 27]   
  Any      1.21 (0.95-1.53)[34]
Diarrhea Mortality Exclusive 2.28 (0.85-6.13)[19, 20] 4.62 (1.81-11.76)[19, 20] 10.52 (2.79-39.6)[19, 20]   
  Predominant   2.41 (1.21-4.83)[20] 7.88 (2.64-23.46)[20] 4.19 (2.24-7.84)[25, 33] 11.73 (4.71-29.21)[25, 33]
  Partial    3.26 (1.15-9.25)[20]   1.69 (1.11-2.58)[25]
All-Cause Mortality Exclusive 1.48 (1.14-1.92)[19, 20, 24] 2.84 (1.63-4.97)[19, 20, 24] 14.40 (6.13-33.86)[19, 20]   
  Predominant   1.69 (1.10-2.61)[20] 8.08 (4.45-14.69)[20]   
  Partial    4.77 (2.65-8.61)[20]   
Diarrhea Hospitalization Exclusive 2.28 (0.08-6.55)[20] 4.43 (1.75-13.84)[20] 19.48 (6.04-62.87)[20]   
  Predominant   3.16 (1.42-7.05)[20, 29] 16.41 (4.59-58.69)[20, 29]   
  Partial    3.95 (1.91-8.19)[20]   
  1. *Effect reported as RR (95% CI)[Ref]