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Table 5

From: Clean birth and postnatal care practices to reduce neonatal deaths from sepsis and tetanus: a systematic review and Delphi estimation of mortality effect

   Quality Assessment Summary of Findings
      Generalisability Intervention Control  
No of studies (ref) Intervention Design Limitations Consistency To population of interest To intervention of interest No. Events No. births No. events No. births Effect size
(95% CI)
Neonatal Mortality (Tetanus Deaths):  
1 (18) CBK and education Before and after Low quality   Masai population* Yes 0 1984 415 5716 RR = 0.01
(0.001 - 0.09)
1 (80) CBK, TT plus multiple interventions Before and after Multiple interventions   India. Lady health worker delivered Multiple interventions 0 1951 2 1958 OR = 0.20
(0.01 - 4.18)
Neonatal Mortality (Sepsis Deaths):  
No studies identified         
Neonatal Mortality (All Cause):  
1 (81) CBK plus multiple interventions cRCT Multiple interventions   Pakistan TBA delivered Multiple interventions 340 10092 439 19432 aOR 0.71
(0.62 - 0.83)
1 (18) CBK and education Before and after Low quality   Masai population* Yes 99 1984 1984 5716 RR = 0.17
(0.13 - 0.23)
1 (80) CBK, TT plus multiple interventions Before and after Multiple interventions   India lady health worker delivered Multiple interventions 35 1951 45 1958 OR 0.78
(0.50 - 1.21)
Neonatal Sepsis incidence:  
1 (84) CBK and demonstration Before and after Observational   Papua New Guinea** Yes 1 67 8 64 OR = 0.11
(0.01 - 0.84)
Cord infection/oomphalitis:  
3 (56, 58, 59) CBK use Adopters vs non-adopters Observational Heterogeneous Egypt, Tanzania, Nepal Yes      aOR 0.08-0.45
1 (11) Use of individual items in CBK Adopters vs non-adopters Observational   Nepal Yes      soap aRR = 0.49 (0.43-0.56)^
  1. *Specific cultural practices and defined neonatal death as death occuring in first 6 weeks of life **Specific cultural practices
  2. ^ no effect of other components on multivariable analysis TT = tetanus toxoid vaccination