Skip to main content

Table 4

From: Clean birth and postnatal care practices to reduce neonatal deaths from sepsis and tetanus: a systematic review and Delphi estimation of mortality effect

   Quality Assessment Summary of Findings
      Generalisability   Intervention Control  
No of studies (ref) Intervention Design Limitations Consistency To population of interest To intervention of interest GRADE of evidence No. events No. births No. events No. births Effect size
(95% CI)
Neonatal Mortality (Tetanus Deaths):  
No studies identified          
Neonatal Mortality (Sepsis Deaths):  
3 (67, 68, 70) Chlorhexidine vaginal and baby wipes 1 RCT,
2 Before and after
Hospital based studies Heterogeneity S.Africa, Malawi, Egypt Yes Moderate 21 10108 55 9612  
1 (73) Chlorhexidine to cord (day 1) cRCT ˇ Single study   Nepal Yes Moderate   3134   3179 RR = 0.69
(0.40 - 1.18)
Neonatal Mortality (All Cause):  
1 (73) Chlorhexidine to cord cRCT Single study   Nepal Yes Moderate 72 4924 98 5082 RR = 0.78
(0.57 - 1.07)*
1 (73) Chlorhexidine to cord (day 1) cRCT ˇ Single study   Nepal Yes Moderate 45 3134 69 3179 RR = 0.66
(0.46 - 0.95)
1 (72) Chlorhexidine wipes to baby cRCT Single study   Nepal Yes Moderate 264 860 263 8880 RR = 1.04
(0.87 - 1.24)
1 (72) Chlorhexidine wipes to baby cRCTˇ Single study   Nepal Low birth weight babies only Moderate 83 2448 117 2491 RR = 0.72
(0.55 - 0.95)
1 (71) Chlorhexidine vaginal and baby wipes 1 RCT Single study   Pakistan Yes Moderate 55 2505 56 2503 RR = 0.98
(0.68 - 1.41)
Neonatal Sepsis incidence:  
2 (70,71) Chlorhexidine vaginal and baby wipes 2 RCT Hospital based studies Consistent S. Africa, Pakistan Yes Moderate 179 6,577 188 6,560 RR = 0.95^
(0.76 - 1.14)
Cord infection/oomphalitis  
1 (73) Chlorhexidine to cord cRCT Single study   Nepal Yes Moderate 438 4703 638 4859 RR = 0.68**
(0.58 - 0.80)
  1. ˇsub-group analysis *adjusted for ethnic group, literacy, topical mustard oil applications ^based on pooled analysis **oomphalitis defined as redness extending to the skin at the base of the umbilical stump