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Table 2 Parenting behaviours: Effect size by programme and multiple comparisons between programmes

From: A comparison of the effectiveness of three parenting programmes in improving parenting skills, parent mental-well being and children's behaviour when implemented on a large scale in community settings in 18 English local authorities: the parenting early intervention pathfinder (PEIP)

  SFSC Incredible Years Triple P ANOVA ANOVA multiple comparisons
Mean difference (CIs)
Variable N Before
(Mean, SD)
After
(Mean, SD)
Effect size N Before
(Mean, SD)
After
(Mean, SD)
Effect size N Before
(Mean, SD)
After
(Mean, SD)
Effect size F-test (df)
p-value
SFSC-IY SFSC-TP IY-TP Summary
Mental Well-Being 347 45.3
(11.2)
50.6
(10.3)
0.49 237 42.9
(10.3)
51.8
(10.0)
0.88 487 42.4
(9.7)
50.1
(9.3)
0.81 F(2,962) = 8.75,
p = .001
-3.65 ***
(-5.70, -1.60)
-2.11 **
(-3.81, -0.40)
1.54
(-0.36, 3.44)
SFSC < (IY = TP)
Parental laxness 325 22.8
(6.7)
19.1
(6.2)
-0.57 229 22.7
(7.1)
16.8
(6.1)
-0.89 486 21.1
(6.1)
16.5
(6.2)
-0.74 F(2,938) = 3.88,
p = .021
2.01 **
(0.57, 3.49)
0.73
(-0.48, 1.95)
-1.29
(-2.63, 0.43)
SFSC < IY
Parent over-reactivity 314 22.4
(6.0)
18.4
(6.1)
-0.65 230 22.0
(6.4)
16.6
(6.2)
-0.86 488 22.9
(6.5)
17.0
(6.1)
-0.93 F(2,930) = 5.36,
p = .005
1.06
(-0.46, 0.56)
1.83 **
(0.56, 3.11)
0.77
(-0.62, 2.16)
SFSC < TP
Parenting Efficacy 329 28.8
(6.6)
30.8
(5.9)
0.33 236 27.7
(6.8)
31.8
(6.1)
0.64 481 26.3
(5.9)
30.6
(5.4)
0.77 F(2,943) = 8.03,
p = .001
-1.91 **
(-3.26, -0.57)
-2.02 ***
(-3.15, -0.89)
-0.11
(-1.35, 1.13)
SFSC < (IY = TP)
Parenting Satisfaction 329 32.5
(8.1)
35.3
(8.5)
0.34 235 30.9
(7.7)
36.5
(7.9)
0.72 484 32.0
(7.4)
37.5
(7.4)
0.74 F(2,946) = 11.78,
p = .001
-3.14 ***
(-4.76, -1.52)
-2.67 ***
(-4.01, -1.32)
0.46
(-1.04, 1.95)
SFSC < (IY = TP)
  1. Notes: 1. Effect sizes are Cohen's d
  2. 2. Programme comparisons based on ANOVA of the change from baseline, defined as post-test minus pre-test, with parent gender, education and income and child gender and age included as control variables.
  3. 3. Multiple comparisons completed using Bonferroni test: n.s. = not significant;*p < .05; **p < .01; ***p < .001