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Table 2 Baseline health-related characteristics by functional status for participants with and without diabetes

From: The excess mortality risk of diabetes associated with functional decline in older adults: Results from a 7-year follow-up of a nationwide cohort in Taiwan

  No history of diagnosed diabetes (N = 1587)   History of diagnosed diabetes (N = 286)  
  Functional Status   Functional Status  
  High Middle Low P-value* High Middle Low P-value*
N 801 682 104   93 154 39  
Age (years; mean ± SE) 71.3 ± 0.17 74.2 ± 0.22 79.1 ± 0.71 < 0.001 71.4 ± 0.51 72.8 ± 0.44 78.3 ± 1.27 < 0.001
Sex (% female) 37.8 60.4 55.8 < 0.001 39.8 48.1 71.8 0.003
Education (years; mean ± SE) 5.6 ± 0.17 4.2 ± 0.18 3.8 ± 0.47 < 0.001 5.9 ± 0.53 5.1 ± 0.42 2.8 ± 0.62 0.006
Marital status (%married or living with partner) 72.8 62.5 55.8 < 0.001 69.9 66.9 41.0 0.004
Smoking status (%current) 25.1 15.1 8.7 < 0.001 25.8 15.6 7.7 0.026
Heart disease (% yes) 16.8 26.2 28.8 < 0.001 23.7 36.4 41.0 0.060
Hypertension (% yes) 32.7 40.6 52.0 < 0.001 46.2 55.6 53.8 0.356
Stroke (% yes) 2.4 5.6 42.7 < 0.001 2.2 15.1 41.0 < 0.001
Number of other conditions (%)
0 59.3 47.1 29.7 < 0.001 47.3 30.4 25.6 0.007
1 30.3 35.5 28.7   34.1 36.5 28.2  
≥2 10.4 17.3 41.6   18.7 33.1 46.2  
Duration of diabetes (years; mean ± SE) - - - - 8.9 ± 0.98 10.0 ± 0.72 12.8 ± 1.68 0.085
Use insulin (% yes) - - - - 13.0 22.2 25.6 0.131
  1. *Continuous variables were compared using one-way analysis of variance and shown as the mean ± standard error (SE). Categorical variables were compared using Pearson's Chi-square test and shown as percentages.
  2. Other conditions include heart disease, hypertension, and stroke.