Skip to main content

Table 3 Association between crime measures and the likelihood of being a current smoker, by age cohort, ORa (95% CI)

From: Neighbourhood crime and smoking: the role of objective and perceived crime measures

    Model 1b Model 2c Model 3d
  Total n ncases OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Police-recorded crime rate
30-50 years-old
   Low 224 59 1 1 1
   Medium 179 76 1.61 (1.09, 2.39) 1.40 (0.93, 2.11) 1.35 (0.89, 2.05)
   High 189 102 2.05 (1.41, 2.98) 1.58 (1.07, 2.35) 1.39 (0.92, 2.10)
Adjusted R 2    0.025 0.138 0.149
50-70 years-old
   Low 276 52 1 1 1
   Medium 234 84 1.91 (1.29, 2.81) 1.67 (1.11, 2.49) 1.66 (1.11, 2.48)
   High 196 111 3.01 (2.06, 4.38) 2.24 (1.51, 3.33) 2.16 (1.45, 3.24)
Adjusted R 2    0.053 0.144 0.146
>70 years-old      
   Low 178 16 1 1 1
   Medium 185 42 2.53 (1.37, 4.66) 2.31 (1.24, 4.32) 2.28 (1.22, 4.27)
   High 172 43 2.78 (1.51, 5.12) 2.30 (1.22, 4.33) 2.29 (1.20, 4.36)
   Adjusted R 2    0.036 0.085 0.091
Resident-perceived crime
30-50 years-old
   Low 220 52 1 1 1
   Medium 210 51 1.04 (0.67, 1.61) 1.07 (0.68, 1.70) 1.04 (0.65, 1.65)
   Medium-high 167 42 1.09 (0.68, 1.73) 1.05 (0.64, 1.70) 0.99 (0.60, 1.62)
   High 232 92 2.12 (1.41, 3.19) 1.78 (1.16, 2.73) 1.63 (1.04, 2.55)
   Adjusted R 2    0.032 0.145 0.149
50-70 years-old
   Low 244 57 1 1 1
   Medium 221 49 0.94 (0.61, 1.44) 0.98 (0.62, 1.54) 0.94 (0.59, 1.48)
   Medium-high 179 43 1.04 (0.66, 1.63) 1.03 (0.64, 1.66) 0.95 (0.59, 1.53)
   High 309 98 1.52 (1.04, 2.23) 1.37 (0.92, 2.04) 1.20 (0.80, 1.81)
Adjusted R 2    0.012 0.126 0.146
>70 years-old
   Low 227 41 1 1 1
   Medium 161 20 0.64 (0.36, 1.15) 0.71 (0.39, 1.28) 0.70 (0.39, 1.27)
   Medium-high 112 15 0.70 (0.37, 1.33) 0.74 (0.38, 1.42) 0.70 (0.36, 1.36)
   High 136 25 1.02 (0.59, 1.77) 1.12 (0.63, 1.97) 0.97 (0.54, 1.74)
   Adjusted R 2    0.009 0.069 0.091
  1. CI confidence interval, n total sample size, n cases number of cases, OR odds ratio
  2. aNever/ex-smokers serve as the reference category
  3. bModel 1: Unadjusted (includes smoking and crime rate or perceived crime only)
  4. cModel 2: Adjusted for sex, SES and employment status
  5. dModel 3: Adjusted for sex, SES, employment status and perceived neighbourhood crime (for objective crime model) and for objective crime (for perceived crime model)