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Table 2 Association between crime measures and the likelihood of being a current smoker, ORa (95% CI)

From: Neighbourhood crime and smoking: the role of objective and perceived crime measures

    Model 1b Model 2c Model 3d
  Total n ncases OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Police-recorded crime rate
All respondents
   Low 678 127 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Medium 598 202 1.80 (1.39, 2.31) 1.68 (1.30, 2.18) 1.67 (1.29, 2.16)
   High 557 256 2.45 (1.93, 3.12) 1.94 (1.51, 2.50) 1.84 (1.42, 2.39)
   Adjusted R 2    0.035 0.132 0.137
Men
   Low 308 63 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Medium 244 88 1.76 (1.23, 2.54) 1.66 (1.13, 2.44) 1.64 (1.11, 2.43)
   High 252 118 2.29 (1.62, 3.24) 1.75 (1.21, 2.54) 1.73 (1.18, 2.54)
   Adjusted R 2    0.032 0.165 0.167
Women
   Low 370 64 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Medium 354 114 1.86 (1.33, 2.61) 1.68 (1.19, 2.39) 1.70 (1.20, 2.42)
   High 305 138 2.62 (1.88, 3.65) 2.09 (1.48, 2.96) 1.95 (1.36, 2.78)
   Adjusted R 2    0.038 0.120 0.132
Resident-perceived crime
All respondents
   Low 691 150 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Medium 592 120 0.92 (0.70, 1.20) 0.94 (0.71, 1.24) 0.90 (0.68, 1.19)
   Medium-high 458 100 1.01 (0.76, 1.34) 0.95 (0.71, 1.28) 0.88 (0.65, 1.18)
   High 677 215 1.68 (1.32, 2.14) 1.43 (1.11, 1.84) 1.26 (0.97, 1.64)
   Adjusted R 2    0.018 0.123 0.137
Men
   Low 308 66 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Medium 257 62 1.17 (0.79, 1.73) 1.22 (0.81, 1.85) 1.17 (0.77, 1.77)
   Medium-high 198 44 1.05 (0.68, 1.61) 0.97 (0.62, 1.54) 0.89 (0.56, 1.41)
   High 310 97 1.67 (1.16, 2.40) 1.30 (0.88, 1.93) 1.12 (0.75, 1.68)
Adjusted R 2    0.013 0.156 0.167
Women
   Low 383 84 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Medium 335 58 0.75 (0.51, 1.08) 0.75 (0.51, 1.11) 0.73 (0.49, 1.07)
   Medium-high 260 56 0.98 (0.67, 1.43) 0.95 (0.64, 1.41) 0.88 (0.59, 1.31)
   High 367 118 1.69 (1.22, 2.34) 1.51 (1.07, 2.13) 1.36 (0.96, 1.93)
   Adjusted R 2    0.025 0.117 0.132
  1. CI confidence interval, n total sample size, n cases number of cases, OR odds ratio
  2. aNever/ex-smokers serve as the reference category
  3. bModel 1: Unadjusted (includes smoking and crime rate or perceived crime only)
  4. cModel 2: Adjusted for sex, age cohort, SES and employment status; sex-specific models adjusted for these confounders excluding sex
  5. dModel 3: Adjusted for sex, age cohort, SES, employment status and perceived neighbourhood crime (for objective crime model) and for objective crime (for perceived crime model); sex-specific models adjusted for these confounders excluding sex