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Table 4 Zinc deficiency and dietary factors among pregnant women in rural Sidama, Southern Ethiopia, Feb 2011

From: Prevalence of prenatal zinc deficiency and its association with socio-demographic, dietary and health care related factors in Rural Sidama, Southern Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study

Variables Serum zinc μg/dl (mean+/-sd) ZD+ ZD- Crude OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI) **
Staple diet (n = 700)      
Enset based 53.3 (9.0) 217 234 1r 1r
Cereal based 50.8 (10.5) 154 95 1.74 (1.28-2.40)* 2.25 (1.61-3.16)*
Diet Diversity (n = 700)      
Low 50.3 (9.6) 162 81 4.78 (3.04-7.51)* 2.57 (1.57-4.18)*
Optimal 52.0 (9.9) 168 150 2.68 (1.75-4.10)* 1.87 (1.02-2.91)*
High 56.9 (9.0) 41 98 1r 1r
Consumed animal source foods (n = 700)      
No 51.2 (9.1) 312 207 3.12 (2.18-4.45)* 2.51 (1.70-3.72)*
Yes 55.9 (9.9) 59 122 1r 1r
HFIAS (n = 700)      
Below the mean value 56.4 (8.7) 116 241 1r 1r
Above the mean value 51.2 (9.4) 255 88 6.02 (4.33-7.36)* 5.07 (3.67-6.99)*
Frequency of coffee intake per day (n = 700)      
≤ 3 coffee cups 53.1 (9.8) 189 141 1r 1r
> 3 coffee cups 51.6 (10.0) 182 188 1.38 (1.02-1.89)* 1.41 (1.06-1.84)*
  1. 1r set as reference, * Significant association at 95% confidence level, ** adjusted for all significant variables and CRP status