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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of 213 included subjects and changes in selected clinical and metabolic variables from baseline to follow-up at 18 months among 182 completers of the study.

From: Effects of lifestyle intervention in persons at risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus - results from a randomised, controlled trial

  Individual physician group (IG)
n = 104
Individual plus interdisciplinary group (IIG)
n = 109
All
n = 213
  Baseline Baseline Baseline
Age 45,9 (11) 47,0 (11) 46,5 (11)
Gender, men, % 53 47 50
Married or cohabiting, % 79 69 74
High school or university, % 27 29 28
Employed, % 64 61 62
BMI 35,9 (6) 37,6 (6) 36,8 (6)
  Baseline Follow-up P value Baseline Follow-up P value Baseline Follow-up Δ-value P value
  n = 89 n = 93 n = 182
Weight, kg 111,7 (22) 108,7 (23) < 0,001* 110,5 (22) 108,0 (20) 0,001* 111,1(22) 108,3 (21) 2,8 < 0,001*
BMI, kg/m 2 35,8 (6) 34,8 (6) < 0,001* 37,0 (6) 36,2 (6) < 0,001* 36,4 (6) 35,5 (6) 0,9 < 0,001*
Waist circumference, cm 119 (14) 115 (15) < 0,001* 118 (15) 116 (14) < 0,001* 118 (14) 115 (14) 3 < 0,001*
Aerobic capacity, ml/kg/min 2 2 27,4 (8) 29,8 (8) < 0,001* 26,4 (8) 28,7 (7) < 0,001* 26,9 (8) 29,2 (7) 2,3 < 0,001*
Heart rate at end of exercise test 2 159 (22) 163 (21) 0,009* 159 (19) 161 (21) 0,17* 159 (20) 162 (21) 3 0,004*
SBP, mmHg 144 (18) 147 (19) 0,09* 144 (20 143 (19) 0,84* 144 (19) 145 (19) 1 0,37*
DBP, mmHg 90 (11) 91 (10) 0,42* 88 (10) 91 (11) 0,03* 89 (11) 91 (11) 2 0,04*
Fasting plasma glucose, mmol/l 5,5(0,8) 5,6(0,7) 0,69* 5,6(0,8) 5,8(1,2) 0,06* 5,6(0,8) 5,7(1,0) 0,1 0,08*
HbA1c, % 5,6 (0,4) 5,6 (0,5) 0,11* 5,6 (0,4) 5,6 (0,5) 0,91* 5,6 (0,4) 5,6 (0,5) 0 0,29*
Total cholesterol, mmol/l 5,5 (1,1) 5,3 (1,0) 0,09* 5,4 (1,1) 5,2 (1,1) 0,07* 5,4 (1,1) 5,3 (1,0) 0,1 0,01*
HDL cholesterol, mmol/l 1,18 (0,3) 1,23 (0,3) 0,006* 1,28 (0,4) 1,25 (0,4) 0.17* 1,23 (0,4) 1,24 (0,3) 0,01 0,40*
Triglycerides, mmol/l 1,9 (1,0) 1,6 (0,7) < 0,001* 1,8 (1,4) 1,5 (0,8) 0,01* 1,9 (1,2) 1,5 (0,7) 0,4 < 0,001*
Diet score, mean 29 (4) 33 (4) < 0,001* 29 (4) 34 (3) < 0,001* 29 (4) 34 (4) 5 < 0,001*
Healthy diet, % of all 2 16 0,007# 1 20 < 0,001# 2 18 16 < 0,001#
Unhealthy diet, % of all 60 17 < 0,001# 56 10 < 0,001# 58 13 45 < 0,001#
Daily smoking, % 21 17 0,22# 18 18 1,0# 20 17 3 0,34#
Days/week using cod liver oil 1,8 (3) 3,4 (3) < 0,001* 1,8 (3) 4,1 (3) < 0,001* 1,8 (3) 3,7 (3) 1,9 < 0,001*
Cod liver oil ≥ 5 days per week 25 43 0,02# 26 54 < 0,001# 25 49 24 < 0,001#
  1. Values are means with standard deviations in parenthesis, unless stated otherwise.
  2. 1Inter-group differences with p < 0.05 based on Chi-Square test for categorical variables and independent sample t-test for quantitative data
  3. *paired sample t test # McNemar test
  4. 2 N = 63 & n = 66 in the IG and IIG group, respectively
  5. Δ-value displays the actual difference between baseline and follow-up
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