Skip to main content

Table 4 Prevalence ratios for current cigarette smoking according to categories of individual-level and neighborhood-level SES characteristics from race- and sex-stratified multivariate robust Poisson regression modelsa

From: Individual and neighborhood-level socioeconomic characteristics in relation to smoking prevalence among black and white adults in the Southeastern United States: a cross-sectional study

  Black males Black females White males White females
  PR 95% CI PR 95% CI PR 95% CI PR 95% CI
Individual-level variables
Household income
   < $15, 000 1.67 (1.49-1.88) 1.68 (1.43-1.98) 1.60 (1.36-1.87) 2.04 (1.76-2.36)
   $15, 000-$25, 000 1.50 (1.33-1.68) 1.48 (1.26-1.73) 1.52 (1.29-1.78) 1.86 (1.60-2.15)
   $25, 000-$50, 000 1.31 (1.16-1.48) 1.24 (1.05-1.47) 1.35 (1.14-1.59) 1.45 (1.24-1.69)
   ≥$50, 000 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
Education (years)
   < 9 1.14 (1.06-1.24) 1.27 (1.14-1.41) 1.31 (1.15-1.49) 1.60 (1.42-1.81)
   9- < 12 1.26 (1.18-1.35) 1.47 (1.35-1.60) 1.49 (1.33-1.67) 1.54 (1.37-1.72)
   12- < 16 1.19 (1.11-1.27) 1.27 (1.17-1.38) 1.34 (1.20-1.49) 1.38 (1.24-1.54)
   ≥16 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
Marital status
   Married 0.81 (0.78-0.84) 0.81 (0.78-0.85) 0.79 (0.74-0.85) 0.94 (0.87-1.02)
   Separated/Divorced 1.05 (1.02-1.07) 0.90 (0.87-0.93) 1.10 (1.04-1.16) 1.17 (1.09-1.26)
   Widowed 0.99 (0.93-1.06) 0.87 (0.81-0.92) 1.23 (1.10-1.38) 1.11 (1.01-1.23)
   Single/Never married 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
Currently working
   Yes 0.95 (0.92-0.97) 0.80 (0.77-0.83) 0.95 (0.90-1.00) 0.84 (0.80-0.89)
   No 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
Neighborhood-level variables
Household income
   < $18, 879 0.99 (0.93-1.06) 0.97 (0.88-1.08) 0.98 (0.87-1.10) 0.92 (0.81-1.04)
   $18, 879 - < $26, 094 1.00 (0.94-1.06) 1.02 (0.94-1.11) 0.92 (0.84-1.01) 0.95 (0.87-1.04)
   $26, 094 - < $34, 583 0.99 (0.94-1.04) 0.99 (0.92-1.06) 0.98 (0.92-1.05) 0.97 (0.91-1.03)
   ≥$34, 583 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
Percent adults with ≥ HS education b
   < 57.8% 0.97 (0.92-1.03) 1.02 (0.93-1.10) 1.00 (0.90-1.12) 1.02 (0.92-1.13)
   57.8% - < 67.5% 0.97 (0.92-1.02) 1.02 (0.95-1.10) 0.95 (0.86-1.04) 1.00 (0.92-1.09)
   67.5% - < 77.3% 0.99 (0.95-1.04) 1.00 (0.94-1.07) 1.02 (0.95-1.09) 1.02 (0.96-1.09)
   ≥77.3% 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
Percent adults with ≥ college graduationb
   < 5.8% 1.06 (1.01-1.12) 1.15 (1.07-1.24) 1.00 (0.92-1.10) 1.02 (0.94-1.12)
   5.8 - < 10.3% 1.08 (1.03-1.13) 1.08 (1.01-1.16) 0.98 (0.90-1.07) 1.01 (0.94-1.10)
   10.3 - < 17.1% 1.03 (0.99-1.08) 1.03 (0.97-1.10) 0.98 (0.91-1.05) 1.02 (0.96-1.09)
   ≥17.1% 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
Percent households owner occupied
   < 43% 1.20 (1.14-1.26) 1.34 (1.25-1.44) 1.08 (0.99-1.17) 1.05 (0.96-1.14)
   43 - < 63% 1.14 (1.08-1.19) 1.22 (1.15-1.31) 1.04 (0.97-1.12) 1.05 (0.99-1.12)
   63 - < 80% 1.10 (1.05-1.16) 1.15 (1.08-1.23) 0.98 (0.92-1.04) 0.97 (0.92-1.03)
   ≥80% 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
Median owner-occupied household value
   < $44, 300 0.91 (0.87-0.95) 0.88 (0.82-0.94) 0.95 (0.86-1.04) 1.07 (0.98-1.17)
   $44, 300 - < $57, 300 0.94 (0.90-0.98) 0.92 (0.86-0.98) 0.98 (0.90-1.06) 0.99 (0.92-1.08)
   $57, 300 - < $77, 400 0.97 (0.93-1.01) 0.98 (0.92-1.04) 1.03 (0.96-1.10) 1.05 (0.98-1.11)
   ≥$77, 400 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
Percent households with interest, dividends, or net rental income
   < 8.0% 1.04 (0.98-1.09) 1.05 (0.96-1.13) 1.20 (1.08-1.33) 1.02 (0.91-1.13)
   8.0 - < 14.7% 1.05 (1.00-1.11) 1.02 (0.95-1.10) 1.12 (1.03-1.21) 1.00 (0.92-1.08)
   14.7 - < 24.1% 1.03 (0.98-1.08) 0.99 (0.93-1.06) 1.03 (0.97-1.09) 1.02 (0.97-1.08)
   ≥24.1% 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
Percent employed
   < 49.5% 1.02 (0.98-1.07) 1.07 (1.00-1.15) 0.99 (0.91-1.08) 0.99 (0.91-1.07)
   49.5% - < 56.9% 1.00 (0.95-1.04) 1.07 (1.00-1.15) 0.97 (0.90-1.04) 0.98 (0.91-1.05)
   56.9% - < 64.1% 0.99 (0.95-1.03) 1.04 (0.98-1.11) 0.97 (0.92-1.04) 1.04 (0.98-1.09)
   ≥64.1% 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0  
  1. aEach race and gender-specific column represents a single Poisson regression model that includes all individual-level and all neighborhood-level characteristics listed in the Table as well as participant age and duration of residency in the current home as reported during the baseline interview
  2. bAmong adults age 25 and older