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Table 4 Associations (odds ratios) between social, demographic, perinatal factors and use of psychological services.

From: Perinatal and psychosocial circumstances associated with risk of attempted suicide, non-suicidal self-injury and psychiatric service use. A longitudinal study of young people

  Psych service use before age-11 Psych service use after 11 ANY Psych service use
Covariates Unadjust Adjusted Unadjust Adjusted Unadjust Adjusted
Psychosocial       
Sex @11       
   Male 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Female 0.38 (0.23-0.62) 0.35 (0.21-0.59) 2.07 (1.09-3.91) 2.11 (1.08-4.11) 0.91 (0.53-1.56) 0.93 (0.56-1.56)
Social class @11p       
   Non-manual 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Manual 1.22 (0.69-2.16) 1.34 (0.70-2.54) 1.44 (0.59-3.51) 1.23 (0.60-2.54) 1.43 (0.88-2.32) 1.15 (0.75-1.76)
Family structure @15       
   2-parent 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   1-parent, 1.05 (0.47-2.33) 0.96 (0.41-2.25) 2.08 (0.99-4.39) 2.05 (0.99-4.25) 1.47 (0.78-2.78) 1.48 (0.80-2.73)
   reconstituted/Other 2.00 (1.00-4.00) 1.48 (0.68-3.23) 2.24 (0.87-5.77) 2.93 (1.35-6.36) 2.15 (1.22-3.79) 2.61 (1.58-4.30)
Same sex part @19       
   No 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Yes NIL NIL 7.10 (3.29-15.33) 7.34 (3.44-15.64) 3.49 (1.72-7.11) 3.42 (1.51-7.77)
Gender conform @15       
   Gender typical 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Gender conformist 0.50 (0.15-1.62) 0.42 (0.13-1.41) 0.85 (0.20-3.66) 0.86 (0.23-3.19) 0.80 (0.28-2.30) 0.92 (0.35-2.40)
   Gender nonconformist 1.00 (0.43-2.32) 0.90 (0.38-2.10) 0.67 (0.27-1.68) 1.28 (0.51-3.19) 1.04 (0.55-1.96) 1.56 (0.83-2.94)
Religion @11p       
   Protestant 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Roman Catholic 0.65 (0.38-1.13) 0.66 (0.37-1.17) 1.17 (0.54-2.54) 1.08 (0.54-2.16) 0.84 (0.45-1.60) 0.84 (0.48-1.47)
   Other (Baptist, etc) 0.50 (0.18-1.42) 0.52 (0.18-1.51) 1.48 (0.42-5.28) 1.26 (0.43-3.70) 1.23 (0.60-2.51) 1.11 (0.55-2.24)
   None/Atheist/Agnostic 1.40 (0.80-2.46) 1.16 (0.64-2.11) 1.19 (0.43-3.24) 1.38 (0.54-3.52) 0.83 (0.29-2.40) 1.05 (0.39-2.83)
Area deprivation @11 0.97 (0.85-1.11) 0.91 (0.78-1.06) 0.91 (0.75-1.10) 0.97 (0.83-1.13) 0.89 (0.75-1.06) 0.95 (0.83-1.10)
Lack of par Care @15 1.14 (0.98-1.32) 1.13 (0.97-1.32) 1.26 (1.01-1.56) 1.29 (1.07-1.55) 1.12 (0.881.42) 1.15 (0.92-1.45)
Parental control @15 1.19 (0.95-1.50) 1.14 (0.90-1.44) 0.96 (0.68-1.35) 0.98 (0.73-1.32) 1.24 (0.94-1.63) 1.24 (0.97-1.57)
Perinatal all @11p       
Maternal parity       
   0 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   1 or more 0.58 (0.37-0.91) 0.93 (0.37-2.34) 0.91 (0.19-4.23) 0.80 (0.44-1.49) 1.21 (0.43-3.37) 0.69 (0.40-1.21)
Family size       
   2 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   3 or more 0.33 (0.20-0.54) 0.45 (0.20-1.02) 0.46 (0.13-1.59) 0.66 (0.25-1.71) 0.38 (0.13-1.10) 0.43 (0.21-0.88)
Birth weight (g)       
   <2500 1.43 (0.57-3.55) 1.40 (0.53-3.71) 0.74 (0.21-2.61) 0.90 (0.29-2.84) 1.14 (0.36-3.63) 1.36 (0.47-3.94)
   2500-3249 1.38 (0.81-2.37) 1.42 (0.81-2.49) 0.66 (0.29-1.49) 0.67 (0.33-1.37) 0.92 (0.56-1.50) 0.98 (0.59-1.63)
   3250-3749 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   3750+ 1.49 (0.81-2.75) 1.43 (0.75-2.72) 0.70 (0.32-1.53) 0.58 (0.29-1.16) 0.93 (0.51-1.70) 0.88 (0.51-1.54)
N birth complications       
   0 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   1 0.81 (0.41-1.61) 0.73 (0.36-1.50) 1.58 (0.75-3.31) 1.24 (0.66-2.34) 1.92 (1.02-3.62) 1.68 (0.92-3.10)
   2 or more 2.26 (1.34-3.82) 2.29 (1.30-4.03) 2.63 (0.87-7.94) 1.67 (0.59-4.72) 3.77 (1.83-7.76) 2.92 (1.45-5.88)
Birth spacing (prior)       
   Under 2 years 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   2-5 years 2.02 (0.84-4.84) 2.03 (0.83-4.99) 0.76 (0.28-2.11) 0.68 (0.28-1.64) 0.94 (0.48-1.82) 0.90 (0.46-1.76)
   6+ years or singleton 2.14 (0.96-4.74) 1.76 (0.72-4.34) 0.39 (0.17-0.88) 0.56 (0.26-1.21) 0.61 (0.21-1.73) 0.91 (0.42-1.94)
Birth spacing (later)       
   Under 2 years 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   2-5 years 0.71 (0.33-1.56) 0.71 (0.32-1.57) 0.37 (0.10-1.32) 0.38 (0.11-1.23) 0.57 (0.27-1.20) 0.56 (0.27-1.16)
   6+ years or singleton 1.44 (0.79-2.62) 1.22 (0.49-3.04) 0.41 (0.08-1.99) 0.70 (0.33-1.49) 0.88 (0.32-2.42) 1.05 (0.62-1.76)
Maternal age (years)       
   15-19 2.22 (1.00-4.94) 1.60 (0.63-4.03) 0.74 (0.14-4.07) 0.77 (0.12-4.78) 1.03 (0.37-2.91) 1.29 (0.57-2.93)
   20-24 1.55 (0.87-2.75) 1.71 (0.92-3.18) 1.26 (0.52-3.03) 1.26 (0.55-2.85) 1.74 (1.00-3.03) 1.59 (0.93-2.72)
   25-29 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   30-34 1.64 (0.88-3.04) 1.48 (0.77-2.84) 1.06 (0.41-2.74) 0.95 (0.41-2.25) 1.61 (0.77-3.41) 1.53 (0.77-3.05)
   35-46 0.52 (0.12-2.26) 0.48 (0.11-2.15) 0.74 (0.06-8.86) 0.77 (0.10-6.08) 0.91 (0.24-3.48) 0.97 (0.28-3.37)
Breastfeeding       
   None 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Less than 6 months 0.92 (0.52-1.60) 0.92 (0.50-1.69) 1.05 (0.46-2.37) 0.94 (0.50-1.77) 0.88 (0.42-1.84) 0.86 (0.43-1.72)
   6 months or more 0.83 (0.43-1.59) 1.05 (0.50-2.21) 1.33 (0.61-2.89) 1.09 (0.56-2.15) 1.21 (0.59-2.48) 1.01 (0.55-1.86)
  1. Significant odds ratios (p = 0.05 or lower) are shown in bold. Final sample with multiple imputation = 2157.
  2. @11 = participant provided information at age 11; @15 = information provided at age 15; @19 = information provided at age 19; @11p = parental figure provided information when participants age 11.