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Table 5 School and individual effects on deliberate self-harm at age 19, unadjusted and fully adjusted models

From: Do schools differ in suicide risk? the influence of school and neighbourhood on attempted suicide, suicidal ideation and self-harm among secondary school pupils

Predictor Self-harm Unadjusted OR p Self-harm Adjusted OR p
Prior mental health risk
Age 11-Depression 1.06 (0.99-1.14) 0.073 1.04 (0.96-1.13) 0.288
Age 11-Psych service (no)     
   Yes 1.16 (0.27-5.05) 0.840 0.99 (0.20-4.85) 0.995
   Missing 0.70 (0.25-1.99) 0.507 3.83 (0.26-55.93) 0.326
Age 11-Victimised (never)
   Less often 1.92 (1.11-3.33) 0.020 1.61 (0.88-2.95) 0.119
   Weekly 1.80 (0.88-3.68) 0.107 1.34 (0.58-3.06) 0.493
Social background
Gender (male)     
   Female 1.56 (0.94-2.59) 0.082 1.54 (0.87-2.73) 0.141
Relative age (older than peers) 1.04 (0.97-1.11) 0.307 1.04 (0.96-1.12) 0.315
Social Class (I)
   II 1.61 (0.32-8.01) 0.561 0.51 (0.20-1.31) 0.160
   IIIn 1.02 (0.23-4.61) 0.977 0.59 (0.19-1.80) 0.354
   IIIm 1.47 (0.31-6.98) 0.628 0.20 (0.06-0.64) 0.007
   IV 0.52 (0.11-2.54) 0.422 0.49 (0.15-1.64) 0.249
   V 1.36 (0.28-6.53) 0.701 1.74 (0.49-6.22) 0.393
   Missing 3.67 (0.74-18.26) 0.112 0.49 (0.07-3.62) 0.484
Deprivation 1.00 (0.88-1.14) 0.970 0.97 (0.80-1.18) 0.786
Religion (Protestant)
   Catholic 0.61 (0.32-1.15) 0.128 0.07 (0.01-0.31) 0.001
   Other 1.57 (0.69-3.57) 0.288 1.18 (0.47-2.96) 0.724
   None 1.08 (0.53-2.23) 0.825 1.00 (0.46-2.17) 0.994
   Missing 0.44 (0.13-1.48) 0.186 0.03 (0.00-0.65) 0.026
Family (2-parent)
   Other 2.50 (1.27-4.94) 0.008 2.72 (1.23-5.99) 0.013
   1-Parent 1.40 (0.68-2.85) 0.358 1.28 (0.57-2.88) 0.554
Parental control 1.22 (1.05-1.42) 0.008 1.12 (0.93-1.35) 0.217
Parental care 0.78 (0.67-0.90) 0.001 0.92 (0.76-1.12) 0.413
School connectedness
Age 11-engagement 1.09 (0.81-1.47) 0.580 1.18 (0.84-1.65) 0.346
Environment (poorer) 1.05 (0.99-1.12) 0.074 1.03 (0.95-1.12) 0.469
Involvement (poorer) 1.17 (1.03-1.32) 0.012 1.01 (0.84-1.22) 0.892
(Dis)engagement (poorer) 1.21 (1.07-1.38) 0.003 1.16 (0.97-1.39) 0.113
T/P relations (poorer) 1.23 (0.98-1.56) 0.080 0.92 (0.67-1.28) 0.634
Neighbourhood perception
Neigh'd cohesion (poorer) 1.25 (0.98-1.59) 0.077 1.06 (0.80-1.41) 0.680
Neigh'd safety/civility (poorer) 1.04 (0.82-1.34) 0.729 0.88 (0.65-1.19) 0.400
Neigh'd facilities (poorer) 1.06 (0.83-1.36) 0.632 1.05 (0.79-1.39) 0.741
School level variables
Overall (avg) ethos 1.45 (1.04-2.03) 0.029 1.31 (0.85-2.01) 0.221
School roll (quintiles) 1.10 (0.92-1.31) 0.281 1.05 (0.84-1.30) 0.671
School rating 0.82 (0.47-1.44) 0.496 0.96 (0.50-1.82) 0.896
Denomination 0.81 (0.47-1.40) 0.457 9.15 (2.17-38.53) 0.003
Cross-level interaction
Mismatch between religion and school denomination 4.12 (1.32-12.89) 0.015 - -
  1. Significant odds ratios are emboldened
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