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Table 1 Characteristics of the subjects according to maternal education, paternal education, and household income

From: Effects of maternal education on diet, anemia, and iron deficiency in Korean school-aged children

Variable Maternal education   Paternal education   Household income  
  Low (n= 268) High (n= 449)   Low (n= 191) High (n= 526)   Low (n= 207) High (n= 510)  
  Mean SD Mean SD P Mean SD Mean SD P Mean SD Mean SD P
Sex (M/F), n 135/133 227/222 0.9620a 94/97 268/258   95/112 267/243  
Height 140.0 6.66 140.1 5.93 0.0516b 139.9 6.74 140.1 6.01 0.0880 140.0 6.83 140.0 5.95 0.9524
Weight 36.7 8.23 36.1 7.18 0.9935 36.7 8.01 36.2 7.43 0.9508 35.9 7.77 36.5 7.52 0.5912
BMI (kg/m2) 18.6 3.14 18.3 2.80 0.3404 18.6 3.06 18.3 2.89 0.3861 18.2 2.81 18.5 2.98 0.4619
WBC 6.8 1.87 6.3 1.50 0.0005 6.8 1.92 6.4 1.54 0.0052 6.7 1.83 6.4 1.58 0.0352
RBC 4.64 0.61 4.72 0.47 0.2433 4.68 0.57 4.70 0.51 0.6494 4.65 0.59 4.71 0.50 0.1739
Glucose 86.5 7.3 85.1 7.0 0.1043 86.9 7.7 85.1 6.9 0.0366 85.6 7.9 85.6 6.8 0.8853
ALT 16.5 17.3 14.7 6.9 0.0320 15.9 15.1 15.2 10.6 0.3626 14.5 11.3 15.7 12.2 0.3264
SBP 108.0 13.0 100.3 12.3 <.0001 109.7 13.4 100.8 12.2 <.0001 107.0 13.0 101.6 12.8 <.0001
DBP 70.4 8.8 67.7 9.2 0.0005 71.3 8.8 67.7 9.1 <.0001 69.9 9.1 68.2 9.1 0.0116
Iron (μg/dl) 99.3 36.3 101.6 34.8 0.3363 98.3 36.2 101.6 35.1 0.2217 98.0 36.6 101.8 34.8 0.1498
Total iron-binding capacity (μg/dl) 340.2 61.7 345.8 47.9 0.0589 338.2 65.3 345.7 48.4 0.0321 341.5 59.0 344.6 51.1 0.4808
TS (%) 29.5 10.4 29.6 10.1 0.9351 29.4 10.1 29.7 10.3 0.7729 29.0 10.6 29.8 10.0 0.2845
Ferritin (μg/l) 40.1 20.2 38.7 20.0 0.5313 38.8 20.7 39.4 19.8 0.5076 38.2 20.5 39.7 19.9 0.4127
Serum transferrin receptor (mg/l) 2.13 0.72 2.05 0.54 0.0587 2.13 0.72 2.06 0.57 0.1051 2.11 0.66 2.07 0.59 0.2546
Hemoglobin (g/dl) 13.0 1.64 13.3 1.26 0.0660 13.1 1.53 13.2 1.38 0.5260 13.1 1.58 13.2 1.35 0.0785
Anemia c ( n , %) 29 (10.8) 28 (6.2) 0.0324d 20 (10.5) 37 (7.0) 0.1589 20 (9.7) 37 (7.3) 0.2883
Iron deficiency e ( n , %) 12 (4.48) 8 (1.78) 0.0577 9 (4.71) 11 (2.09) 0.0724 9 (4.35) 11 (2.16) 0.1318
Iron-deficiency anemia f ( n , %) 1 (0.37) 1 (0.22)   0 2 (0.38)    0 2 (0.39)  
Anemia & iron deficiency 40 (14.9) 35 (7.8) 0.0035 29 (15.2) 46 (8.8) 0.0183 29 (14.0) 46 ( 9.0) 0.0588
  1. BMI body mass index
  2. a P value by chi-square test
  3. b P-value by generalized linear model adjusted by age and sex
  4. cAnemia: hemoglobin <11.5 g/dl(1)
  5. d P value by Fisher's exact test
  6. eIron deficiency: iron < 40 μg/dl(22)
  7. fIron-deficiency anemia: hemoglobin <11.5 g/dl and iron <40 μg/dl
  8. Subjects were measured for SBP and DBP by maternal educational level (low = 267, high = 448), paternal educational level (low = 190, high = 525), and household income level (low = 205, high = 510)