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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of homeless and non-homeless persons with TB on the Island of Montreal, 1996-2007

From: Tuberculosis and homelessness in Montreal: a retrospective cohort study

  Homeless (n = 20) Non-Homeless (n = 1803) Odds Ratio or P-Value
Demographics      
Canadian-born, N (%) 17 85% 297 16% OR = 28 (95% CI: 8.1-96)
   Aboriginal, N (% of Canadian-born) 5 29% - - -
Median Age, Years (IQR) 44 35-51 39 28-60 p = 0.18
Male, N (%) 11 55% 974 53% OR = 1.0 (95% CI: 0.42-2.5)
TB Disease      
Culture-Positive, N (% of all cases) 20 100% 1598 89% -
Pulmonary TB, N (% of all cases) 20 100% 1230 68% -
Smear-Positive, N (% of pulmonary cases) 17 85% 601 49% OR = 5.7 (95% CI: 1.7-20)
Resistant to one or more Drugs, N (%) 2 10% 211 12% OR = 0.71 (95% CI: 0.16-3.1)
Risk Factors and Co-morbidities      
Smoker, N (%) 12 60% 274 15% OR = 8.2 (95% CI: 3.1-22)
Alcohol Use, N (%) 15 75% 271 15% OR = 20 (95% CI: 5.7-69)
Drug User, N (%) 13 65% 18 1.0% OR = 190 (95 % CI: 62-600)
   Smoker and Alcohol and Drug User, N (%) 7 35% 11 0.61% OR = 86 (95% CI: 28-260)
Tested for HIV, N (%) 17 85% 883 49% OR = 5.9 (95% CI: 1.7-20)
HIV-Positive, N (% of Tested for HIV) 12 60% 130 7.2% OR = 14 (95% CI: 4.8-40)
Liver Disease, N (%) 11 55% 118 6.5% OR = 24 (95% CI: 8.7-66)
Psychiatric Illness, N (%) 4 20% - -  
Treatment      
Median Diagnostic Delay*(Days), IQR 61 31-92 28 14-60 p = 0.022
Directly Observed Therapy (DOT), N (%) 14 70% 733 45% OR = 5.6 (95% CI: 1.6-20)
Median Duration of Therapy (Months), IQR 9 6-10.5 6 6-9 p = 0.623
Treatment Outcome: Cured, N (%) 15 75% 1465 81% OR = 0.56 (95% CI: 0.18-1.7)
Treatment Outcome: Died, N (%) 3 15% 116 6.4% OR = 2.5 (95% CI: 0.73-8.8)
  1. IQR = Interquartile Range, OR = Odds Ratio, CI = Confidence Interval
  2. *Diagnostic Delay = Time from onset of symptoms to diagnosis of TB