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Table 5 Assessment of variables associated with improving waist circumference to meet recommended guidelines at follow-up

From: Participant characteristics associated with greater reductions in waist circumference during a four-month, pedometer-based, workplace health program

Group Predictor Variable n % meeting WC guidelines at four-months Univariate Multivariable Approach 1a Multivariable Approach 2b
     OR P-value OR P-value OR P-value
  DEMOGRAPHICS         
1 Age (year) 288 - 0.97 0.08 0.97 0.039 0.97 0.039
  Sex         
     Female 185 21.08 reference reference reference
     Male 103 26.21 1.33 0.4 1.43 0.3 1.43 0.3
2 Socio Economic Status (by SEIFA %)        
     Most Advantaged 95 21.05 reference reference reference
     Advantaged 122 22.13 1.07 0.9 1.03 0.9 1.03 0.9
     Disadvantaged 52 26.92 1.38 0.6 1.39 0.5 1.39 0.5
     Most Disadvantaged 18 27.78 1.44 0.4 1.63 0.2 1.63 0.2
  Tertiary Education         
     Not completed 69 20.29 reference reference reference
     Completed 219 23.74 1.22 0.3 1.07 0.8 1.07 0.8
  Occupation         
     Professional 105 22.86 reference reference reference
     Associate professional 53 22.64 0.99 1.0 0.96 0.9 0.96 0.9
     Manager 55 23.64 1.04 0.9 1.04 0.9 1.04 0.9
     Clerical or Service 48 27.08 1.25 0.4 1.51 0.2 1.51 0.2
  Marital Status         
     Married/de facto 200 23 reference reference reference
     Widowed/separated/divorced 26 23.08 1.00 1.0 1.34 0.7 1.34 0.7
     Never married 60 23.33 1.02 1.0 0.71 0.4 0.71 0.4
  BASELINE MEASURES         
3    Prior GCC® Participationc 286 22.54 0.96 0.9 0.88 0.6 1.13 0.6
  Reasons for Participation c         
  Health 286 21.92 0.76 0.4 1.22 0.6 1.22 0.6
  To look my best 286 19.23 0.48 <0.001 0.38 0.004 0.38 0.004
  Fitness 286 20.57 0.61 0.2 0.93 0.9 0.93 0.9
  Colleagues 286 23.9 1.11 0.7 0.89 0.7 0.89 0.7
  Friends or family 286 14.29 0.55 0.6 0.69 0.8 0.69 0.8
  Behavioural Measures         
4 Fruit Intake         
     Not meeting guidelines 188 19.15 reference     
     Meeting guidelines 98 30.61 1.86 0.028 2.42 <0.001 3.05 0.001
  Vegetable Intake         
     Not meeting guidelines 244 23.36 reference     
     Meeting guidelines 42 21.43 0.89 0.8 0.62 0.4 0.61 0.4
  Takeaway Dinner         
     Once or less per month 132 20.45 reference     
     About once a week 117 24.79 1.28 0.4 1.35 0.4 1.31 0.5
     More than once a week 37 27.03 1.44 0.3 1.44 0.6 1.49 0.5
  Alcohol         
     Not meeting guidelines 159 24.53 reference     
     Meeting guidelines 127 21.26 0.83 0.6 0.71 0.3 0.64 0.2
  Tobacco         
     Smoker 32 21.88 reference     
     Non-smoker 254 23.23 1.08 0.8 0.71 0.5 0.61 0.4
  Physical Activity         
     Not meeting guidelines 178 20.79 reference     
     Meeting guidelines 108 26.85 1.40 0.002 1.42 0.1 1.48 0.2
  Sitting Time (hrs per day)         
     Weekday 286 - 0.94 0.1 0.99 0.9 1.00 0.9
     Weekend 286 - 0.80 0.025 0.78 0.053 0.75 0.023
  Psychosocial Measures         
5 Physical Functioning (SF12) 282 - 1.07 <0.001 1.08 <0.001 1.06 0.004
  Mental Functioning (SF12) 282 - 1.00 0.6 1.03 0.022 1.03 0.2
  Physical Measures d       
6 Blood Pressure (mmHg)         
     Systolic 273 - 0.97 <0.001 0.99 0.8 1.01 0.7
     Diastolic 273 - 0.95 <0.001 0.96 0.4 0.93 0.2
     Not meeting guidelines 56 7.14 reference     
     Meeting guidelines 217 26.73 4.74 <0.001     
  Heart rate (Mean, SD) 273 - 0.99 0.8 0.99 0.8 1.00 0.9
  Weight (Mean, SD)e 288 - 0.94 <0.001     
  Body Mass Index         
     Body Mass Index 288 - 0.64 <0.001 0.55 <0.001 0.51 <0.001
     Not meeting guidelines 238 15.13 reference     
     Meeting guidelines 50 60 8.42 <0.001     
  Waist circumferencef         
     Waist circumference 288 - 0.91 <0.001     
  Biomedical Measures (fasting) d       
7 Total Cholesterol         
     Total Cholesterol 285 - 0.60 0.001 0.66 0.018 0.63 0.1
     Not meeting guidelines 89 14.61 reference     
  Meeting guidelines 196 26.53 2.11 0.040     
  Glucose         
     Glucose 285 - 1.40 0.5 2.60 1.0 3.00 1.0
     Not meeting guidelines 18 22.22 reference     
     Meeting guidelines 267 22.85 1.04 1.0     
  Triglycerides         
     Triglycerides 285 - 1.48 0.001 1.54 0.012 3.12 0.7
     Not meeting guidelines 73 16.44 reference     
     Meeting guidelines 212 25 1.69 0.1     
  Predicted risk scores d        
8 Cardiovascular disease risk (next 10 years)       
     CVD risk (continuous) 267 - 0.93 0.1 0.89 0.1 1.26 0.2
     Low-risk 227 23.35 reference     
     Intermediate-risk 33 12.12 0.45 0.2     
     High-risk 7 42.86 2.46 0.4     
  Diabetes risk (next 5 years)f       
     Diabetes risk (continuous) 285 - 0.88 0.031     
     Low-risk 67 40.3 reference     
     Intermediate-risk 173 19.08 0.35 <0.001     
     High-risk 45 11.11 0.19 0.013     
  WORKPLACE CHARACTERISTICS g       
9 Public ownership (vs. private) 288 21.77 0.89 0.6 1.30 0.4 1.31 0.6
  Outer city location (vs. inner city) 288 22.58 0.97 0.9 1.12 0.8 1.21 0.8
  PROCESS MEASURES         
  Step data d         
10 Step average per day 288 - 1.00 0.2 1.00 0.2 1.00 0.3
     <10,000 steps average (per day) 98 19.39 reference     
     Meeting ≥10,000 steps average (per day) 190 24.74 1.37 0.4     
  1. a Associated risk-factor subgroups adjusted only for baseline demographic confounders
  2. b Associated risk-factor subgroups adjusted for all potential predictors within the analysis Group and above
  3. c The reference group for this binary variable is 'no'. The reference group data is not shown.
  4. d Continuous variables chosen over categorical variables
  5. e Excluded due to the inclusion of body mass index (BMI)
  6. f Excluded from model as baseline WC was not considered as a predictor.
  7. g The reference group for this binary variable is shown in brackets. The reference group data is not shown.
  8. Note: For participants not meeting WC guidelines at baseline